The Army has successfully fired a 155mm artillery round 62 kilometers – marking a technical breakthrough in the realm of land-based weapons and progressing toward its stated goal of being able to outrange and outgun Russian and Chinese weapons.
“We just doubled the range of our artillery at Yuma Proving Ground,” Gen. John Murray, Commanding General of Army Futures Command, told reporters at the Association of the United States Army Annual Symposium.
Currently, most land-fired artillery shot from an M777 Towed Howitzer or Self-Propelled Howitzer are able to pinpoint targets out to 30km – so hitting 62km marks a substantial leap forward in offensive attack capability.
This M-109A8 variant based on this enhanced design is expected to be fielded by 2023 and provide the US Army with cannon artillery firepower that could reach targets 70 km with high precision.
Eventually, the Army hopes that with enhanced ammunition those guns could reach targets at 100 km.
This is not the final goal, the Army also plans to test a strategic cannon that will be able to fire projectiles as far as a thousand kilometers away.
Such a strategic weapon will become part of the Army’s answer to the Russian and Chinese advanced air defense networks, (known as Anti-Access Area Denial systems – A2AD).
Murray was clear that the intent of the effort, described as Extended Range Cannon Artillery, is specifically aimed at regaining tactical overmatch against Russian and Chinese weapons.
“The Russian and Chinese have been able to outrange most of our systems,” Murray said.
Citing the Russian invasion of Ukraine as a “wake-up call,” Murray explained that Russian weaponry, tactics and warfare integration caused a particular concern among Army leaders.
“In Ukraine, we saw the pairing of drones with artillery, using drones as spotters.
Their organizational structure and tactics were a wake up call for us to start looking at a more serious strategy,” Murray explained.
The Army’s 2015 Combat Vehicle Modernization Strategy specifically cites concerns about Russia’s use of advanced weapons and armored vehicles in Ukraine.
“The Russians are using their most advanced tanks in the Ukraine, including the T-72B3, T-80, and T-90.
All of these tanks have 125mm guns capable of firing a wide range of ammunition, including anti-tank/anti-helicopter missiles with a six-kilometer range, and advanced armor protection, including active protection on some models,” the strategy writes.
The US Army’s longest range artillery round is the Excalibur GPS guided projectile, that has demonstrated hits within 2 meters of its intended target, fired from a range of 62 km.
The M982 Excalibur is a 155 mm extended range guided artillery shell developed during a collaborative effort between the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the United States Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC).
The Excalibur was manufactured by prime contractor Raytheon Missile Systems and BAE Systems AB. It is a GPS-guided munition capable of being used in close support situations within 75–150 metres (246–492 ft) of friendly troops or in situations where targets might be prohibitively close to civilians to attack with unguided artillery fire.
With more than1,400 rounds fired in combat to date, the Excalibur artillery projectile is the revolutionary, extended range, precision munition for U.S. and international artillery forces.
Excalibur was developed as a longer-ranged alternative to conventional artillery shells, with GPS guidance for improved accuracy.
Excalibur has a range of approximately 40 to 57 kilometres (25 to 35 mi) depending on configuration, with a circular error probable (CEP) of around 5 metres (16 ft) to 20 metres (66 ft).
The extended range is achieved through the use of folding glide fins, which allow the projectile to glide from the top of a ballistic arc towards the target.
It has a multi-function fuze that can be programmed to explode in the air, once it hits a hard surface, or after it penetrates inside a target.
One Excalibur projectile can accurately hit an intended target that would require the use of between 10 and 50 unguided artillery rounds.
The enhancement of the M-109A8 and its ammunition are part of the work spent by the Army’s Cross Functional Team (CFT) focused on Long Range Precision Fires.
The Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ERCA) that began firing trials in March uses a longer barrel, redesigned chamber, and breech, to withstand the higher pressure generated during the firing that accelerates the rounds that long range.
The M-109A8 will use new types of ammunition to match those pressures and the firing rate of 6-10 rounds per minute.
To achieve this rate the gun will require semi- or fully-automated ammunition handling.
The system is expected to get an autoloader, a new fire control system and be able to use the XM-654 supercharge and new XM-1113 rocket-assisted projectile (RAP) that provides 20 percent more impulse, compared to current RAP (M549A1), both designed to fire projectiles over twice the current range they reach now.
Both were developed and tested with the towed variant of the XM-907 cannon (M-777ER).
The XM-1113 has already demonstrated 30 percent range extension (40 km) at a mean miss distance (CEP) of 20 meters fired current M-109A7 Paladin 155mm guns.
With longer range, high mobility and lower cost per shot ERCA will become the US Army’s ‘tactical weapon’ against enemy anti-access and area denial (A2AD) systems, providing the ground forces with a capability to defeat enemy air defenses and command and control elements farther away from enemy artillery.
Unlike the current artillery which is too close and vulnerable to enemy attack, this concept of operations is intended to support mechanized forces and infantry from stand-off range.
Longer range precision fire can hit enemy troop concentrations, supply lines, and equipment essential to a coordinated attack while allowing forces to stay farther back from the incoming enemy fire.
ERCA is one of several current initiatives intended to address this. Accordingly, the Army is now prototyping artillery weapons with a larger caliber tube and new grooves to hang weights for gravity adjustments to the weapon – which is a modified M777A2 mobile howitzer.
The new ERCA weapon is designed to hit ranges greater than 70km, Army developers said.
The modification adds 1,000 pounds to the overall weight of the weapon and an additional six feet of cannon tube.
The ERCA systems also uses a redesigned cab, new breech design and new “muzzle brake,” the official explained.
“The ERCA program develops not only the XM907 cannon but also products, such as the XM1113 rocket assisted projectile, the XM654 supercharge, an autoloader, and new fire control system,” an Army statement said.
As part of an effort to ensure the heavy M777 is sufficiently mobile, the Army recently completed a “mobility” demonstration of ERCA prototypes.
The service demonstrated a modified M777A2 Howitzer with an integration kit for the mass mock-up of the modified XM907 ERCA cannon at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona.
“Their [user] concern is that when the self-propelled program is done they will be left with a towed cannon variant that they can’t tow around, which is its number one mode of transportation,” David Bound, M777ER Lead, Artillery Concepts and Design Branch, which is part of the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, or ARDEC, said in an Army statement earlier this year.
The ERCA is currently being configured to fire from an M109a8 Self-Propelled Howitzer, using a 58-Cal. tube; the existing M109a7, called the Paladin Integrated Management, fires a 39-Cal. weapon.
ERCA changes the Army’s land war strategic calculus in a number of key respects, by advancing the Army’s number one modernization priority – long-range precision fires.
This concept of operations is intended to enable mechanized attack forces and advancing infantry with an additional stand-0ff range or protective sphere with which to conduct operations.
Longer range precision fire can hit enemy troop concentrations, supply lines and equipment essential to a coordinated attack, while allowing forces to stay farther back from incoming enemy fire.
A 70-kilometer target range is, by any estimation, a substantial leap forward for artillery; when GPS guided precision 155mm artillery rounds, such as Excalibur, burst into land combat about ten years ago – its strike range was reported at roughly 30 kilometers.
A self-propelled Howitzer able to hit 70-kilometers puts the weapon on par with some of the Army’s advanced land-based rockets – such as its precision-enabled Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System which also reaches 70-kilometers.
In a modern threat environment, wherein near-peer and smaller-level rivals increasingly possess precision-guided land weapons, longer-range C4ISR technology and drone weapons, increasing range is a ubiquitous emphasis across the Army and other services. Russia’s violations of the INF treaty, new S-500 air defenses, new Armata tanks and fast growing attack drone fleet – are all areas of concern among US Army weapons developers.
In fact, senior Army developers specifically say that the ERCA program is, at least in part, designed to enable the Army to out-range rival Russian weapons.
The Russian military is currently producing its latest howitzer cannon, the 2S33 Msta-SM2 variant; it is a new 2A79 152mm cannon able to hit ranges greater than 40km, significantly greater than the 25km range reachable by the original Russian 2S19 Msta – which first entered service in the late 1980s, according to data from globalsecurity.org.
Earlier this year, statements from the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation said that 2S19 Msta-S modernized self-propelled howitzers were fielded near Volgograd, Russia.
The 2S19 Msta-S howitzers are equipped with an automated fire control system with an increased rate of fire, digital electronic charts, ballistic computers and satellite navigation systems, the report says.
While senior Army weapons developers welcome the possibility of longer-range accurate artillery fire, they also recognize that its effectiveness hinges upon continued development of sensor, fire control and target technology.
“Just because I can shoot farther, that does not mean I solve the issue. I have to acquire the right target. We want to be able to hit moving targets and targets obscured by uneven terrain,” the senior Army developer said.
In a concurrent related effort, the Army is also engineering a adaptation to existing 155mm rounds which will extend range an additional 10km out to 40km.
Fired from an existing Howitzer artillery cannon, the new XM1113 round uses ram jet rocket technology to deliver more thrust to the round.
Soldiers can also integrate the existing Precision Guidance Kit to the artillery shells as a way to add a GPS-guided precision fuse to the weapon.
The new adapted round also uses safer Insensitive Munition Explosives.