Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) has emerged as a fascinating component in human physiology, capable of transforming energy from nutrients into heat. While its significance in maternal care in non-human species is acknowledged, its involvement in human interpersonal interactions and adult attachment remains elusive.
The prevalent use of intrusive radioactive tracers, via PET-CT scans, hampers a comprehensive understanding due to their limitations in repeated measurements. In this quest for knowledge, Symonds et al. (2012) introduced infrared thermography as a non-invasive alternative, laying the groundwork for a paradigm shift in BAT research.
Social Importance of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis
Newborns possess higher BAT levels, crucial for core body temperature regulation. The conventional belief, up until 2003, was that adults lacked BAT depots. Cohade et al. (2003a) shattered this notion, revealing significant BAT depots, initially named “USA-Fat,” in adult humans. BAT’s role in heat production during cold exposure or after eating, known as dietary-induced thermogenesis, highlights its dynamic nature. The energy expenditure of BAT is intricately linked to its quantity, indicating that small variations in BAT amounts may lead to differences in BAT thermogenesis.
The intriguing possibility that interindividual differences in BAT quantity in adults are influenced by social experiences is explored. Social thermoregulation, observed in non-human species, has been associated with substantial metabolic energy savings.
In humans, preliminary findings suggest a potential positive association between BAT levels and attachment avoidance, emphasizing the link between social connection, health, and the need to explore BAT as a key player in understanding these mechanisms.
Infrared Thermography: A Non-Invasive Way to Measure BAT Thermogenesis
The invasive and costly nature of direct BAT thermogenesis assessment, primarily through PET-CT imaging, necessitated the exploration of alternatives. Infrared thermography, as proposed by Symonds et al. (2012), offers a non-invasive, low-cost, and risk-free method to evaluate BAT thermogenesis.
The method measures superficial temperature, focusing on the supraclavicular area, where the largest human BAT depots are located. While the majority of BAT heat contributes to internal temperature, the detection of heat on the skin’s surface is pivotal, especially during cold manipulations.
Heterogeneity in BAT Measurement and Statistical Power Problems
Systematic reviews on different methods of infrared thermography reveal significant heterogeneity in protocols, sample sizes, and conflicting results. Previous studies, with modest sample sizes, reported positive associations between infrared thermography measures and PET/CT scans, while others showed no relationship.
The lack of close replications, varied protocols, and potential publication bias underscore the need for standardized methods and larger sample sizes. The ongoing measurement crisis in psychology emphasizes the urgency of reliable measurements in understanding phenomena like social-thermoregulation-based attachment.
Selecting a Protocol of Infrared Thermography
Motivated by the interest in assessing individual differences in attachment and interpersonal interactions, infrared thermography presented an attractive avenue. A paradigmatic replication of Symonds et al.’s (2012) study was conducted, with modifications to the cooling intervention protocol based on empirical findings by Costello.
The aim was to evaluate individual BAT thermogenesis in psychology students and gain a better estimation of the effect and protocol reliability. Both relative and absolute measures of supraclavicular skin temperature were reported, allowing a comprehensive comparison with Symonds et al.’s original study and quantification of temperature variations in the BAT area compared to a control area.
In conclusion, this article navigates the intricate landscape of BAT research, highlighting its thermogenic role in adults and the potential link to social experiences. The introduction of infrared thermography as a non-invasive measurement method opens new avenues for exploration.
As the scientific community grapples with measurement crises, this study contributes to the ongoing dialogue by emphasizing the need for standardized protocols, larger sample sizes, and close replications. BAT, with its enigmatic role in social interactions, invites further scrutiny to unlock its secrets and enhance our understanding of its significance in human health.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized type of fat that plays a vital role in thermogenesis, the production of heat. BAT is found in all mammals, including humans. It is most abundant in newborns, but it can also be found in adults. BAT is often described as “good fat” because it helps to burn calories and keep the body warm.
Chemically, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a type of fat tissue that contains a high number of mitochondria. Mitochondria are the organelles in cells that are responsible for producing energy. In BAT cells, the mitochondria are specialized for uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, which means that they produce heat instead of ATP, the energy currency of the body.
Physically, BAT is found in clusters throughout the body, but it is most abundant around the neck, shoulders, and upper back. BAT cells are smaller and more numerous than cells in white adipose tissue (WAT), which is the other main type of fat tissue.
Mentally, BAT has been linked to a number of cognitive benefits, including improved mood, increased alertness, and better memory. Some studies have also shown that BAT may play a role in social behavior.
Here is a more detailed look at the chemical, physical, and mental properties of BAT:
Chemical properties of BAT
- BAT cells contain a high number of mitochondria, which are the organelles in cells that are responsible for producing energy.
- The mitochondria in BAT cells are specialized for uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, which means that they produce heat instead of ATP, the energy currency of the body.
- BAT cells also contain high levels of brown fat protein (UCP1), which is a protein that helps to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation.
Physical properties of BAT
- BAT is found in clusters throughout the body, but it is most abundant around the neck, shoulders, and upper back.
- BAT cells are smaller and more numerous than cells in WAT, which is the other main type of fat tissue.
- BAT cells have a higher blood supply than WAT cells.
Mental properties of BAT
- BAT has been linked to a number of cognitive benefits, including improved mood, increased alertness, and better memory.
- Some studies have also shown that BAT may play a role in social behavior.
For example, one study found that people with more BAT had better cognitive function and were more likely to be outgoing and social. Another study found that BAT transplantation improved cognitive function in mice with Alzheimer’s disease.
The exact mechanisms by which BAT affects cognitive function and social behavior are not fully understood. However, it is thought that BAT may play a role in regulating mood, energy levels, and inflammation.
Overall, BAT is a fascinating and important tissue that has a number of potential health benefits. More research is needed to fully understand the chemical, physical, and mental properties of BAT, and how these properties can be harnessed to improve human health.
Thermogenic Role of BAT
BAT produces heat by burning fat. This process is called uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation. Unlike other types of fat, BAT cells contain a high number of mitochondria, which are the organelles responsible for energy production. When BAT cells are activated, they burn fat to produce heat instead of ATP, the energy currency of the body.
BAT is activated by a number of factors, including cold exposure, norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones. When the body is exposed to cold, the sympathetic nervous system releases norepinephrine. Norepinephrine binds to beta-adrenergic receptors on BAT cells, which activates them and triggers uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation.
Social Significance of BAT
BAT plays an important role in social behavior in some mammals. For example, brown bears use their BAT to stay warm during hibernation. Bats also use their BAT to stay warm during long flights.
In humans, BAT may also play a role in social behavior. For example, studies have shown that people with more BAT are more likely to be outgoing and social. BAT may also play a role in mood regulation. Studies have shown that people with more BAT are less likely to experience depression and anxiety.
Health Benefits of BAT
BAT has a number of health benefits. BAT can help to:
- Burn calories and promote weight loss
- Reduce the risk of obesity and other metabolic diseases
- Improve insulin sensitivity
- Reduce blood sugar levels
- Reduce cholesterol levels
- Improve blood pressure
- Improve cardiovascular health
- Reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke
- Improve cognitive function
- Reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia
- Boost the immune system
- Improve bone health
- Reduce the risk of osteoporosis
- Extend lifespan
How to Increase BAT
There are a number of things that you can do to increase your BAT levels:
- Expose yourself to cold. Cold exposure is one of the most effective ways to activate BAT. You can expose yourself to cold by taking cold showers, swimming in cold water, or spending time in cold weather.
- Exercise regularly. Exercise is another effective way to activate BAT. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week.
- Eat a healthy diet. Eating a healthy diet can help to increase your BAT levels. Make sure to eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Avoid processed foods, sugary drinks, and unhealthy fats.
- Get enough sleep. Getting enough sleep is important for overall health and well-being. It may also help to increase your BAT levels. Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep per night.
BAT is a fascinating and important tissue that plays a vital role in thermogenesis and social behavior in mammals. BAT also has a number of health benefits, including weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced risk of metabolic diseases, and improved cognitive function. There are a number of things that you can do to increase your BAT levels, such as exposing yourself to cold, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and getting enough sleep.
Future Directions of BAT Research
BAT research is a rapidly growing field. Scientists are working to learn more about the biology of BAT, how to activate BAT, and how to increase BAT levels. This research could lead to new treatments for obesity, metabolic diseases, and other medical conditions.
One promising area of research is the development of BAT activators. BAT activators are drugs that can activate BAT and trigger uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation. This could lead to a new class of drugs for weight loss and other metabolic diseases.
Another promising area of research is the development of BAT transplants. BAT transplants are procedures that would involve transplanting BAT cells from one person to another. This could be an effective way to increase BAT levels in people with low BAT levels.
BAT research is a promising area of research with the potential to lead to new and effective treatments for a variety of medical conditions.
reference link : https://spb.psychopen.eu/index.php/spb/article/view/10461/10461.pdf