New study evidence the need to review how retinal cells in mammals process light

Foveal retina. False-colour scanning electron micrograph of the human retina featuring the central fovea, a crater-like depression in the photosensitive layer of the eye. The foveal retina is the area of greatest visual acuity and contains only cone receptor cells. When an eye looks at an object, that part focused on the fovea is the portion most accurately registered by the brain. This area is particularly rich in blood vessels, which appear root-like, running in, over & outside of the foveal ridge". Magnification x24 at 6x7cm size."

Johns Hopkins Medicine scientists say that new experiments with mouse eye tissues strongly suggest that a longstanding “textbook concept” about the way a mammal’s retina processes light needs a rewrite.

The enduring concept took root more than 30 years ago when researchers doing experiments in frog retinas found that when a single particle of light, known as a photon, is absorbed by light-sensing cells called rods, it starts a cascade of biochemical reactions that involve around 500 molecules called G proteins.

Now, Johns Hopkins vision scientists say that their experiments, described March 12 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that the number of G protein molecules activated in the cascade of reactions is far fewer – involving only 10-20 of them in the rods of mice.

The new finding matters, say the scientists, because G proteins belong to a very large family of biochemical signaling pathways called G protein-coupled-receptors, which are among the most abundant signaling pathways in biology, says King-Wai Yau, Ph.D., professor of neuroscience and ophthalmology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

“These pathways are a major target among pharmaceutical companies, because they control many diverse physiological processes, ranging from those that allow us to see images to those tied to heart disease,” says Yau.

“We’re beginning to understand our visual system better, and the more we understand a system, the better we are to develop treatments for its malfunction,” says Daniel Silverman, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellow in Yau’s laboratory.

When a photon of light hits a rod in the retina, it is absorbed by a light-sensing protein, called rhodopsin, which is embedded in membranes within the cell.

Rhodopsin then activates G proteins, which, in turn, activate other enzymes.

It is the number of G protein molecules activated by one rhodopsin molecule that the new experiments challenge, Yau says.

He notes that other scientists had speculated that the number of activated G protein molecules may be much less than the many hundred originally proposed, but the number was difficult to directly measure in intact rods.

How Your Eyes Work

Rods and cones in the retina

When light rays reflect off an object and enter the eyes through the cornea (the transparent outer covering of the eye), you can then see that object. 

The cornea bends, or refracts, the rays that pass through the round hole of the pupil. The iris (the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil) opens and closes, making the pupil bigger or smaller. This regulates the amount of light passing through. 

The light rays then pass through the lens, which changes shape so it can further bend the rays and focus them on the retina.

The retina, which sits at the back of the eye, is a thin layer of tissue that contains millions of tiny light-sensing nerve cells. These nerve cells are called rods and cones because of their distinct shapes. 

Cones are concentrated in the center of the retina, in an area called the macula. When there is bright light, cones provide clear, sharp central vision and detect colors and fine details. 

Rods are located outside the macula and extend all the way to the outer edge of the retina. They provide peripheral or side vision. Rods also allow the eyes to detect motion and help us see in dim light and at night. 

These cells in the retina convert the light into electrical impulses. The optic nerve sends these impulses to the brain, which produces an image.

In the following schematic illustration, click on the names to highlight the parts of the eye.

How your eyes work

To do that, Yau and his colleagues devised two ways to measure the response to a single activated G protein in intact rods.

First, the scientists used mice engineered to express a mutant form of rhodopsin that interacts very poorly with the G protein so that most of the time no G protein is activated.

But when rhodopsin was successful in interacting with G protein molecules, only one G protein was activated.

Second, the scientists looked at a derivative of normal rhodopsin called opsin, which is generated after rhodopsin is exposed to light.

Opsin itself does not absorb light, but it can signal G proteins occasionally and very weakly.

Opsin’s signal is so weak that it can activate, at most, one G protein molecule, says Yau.

To make quantitative measurements, Silverman and former graduate student Wendy W.S. Yue used a tight-fitting glass pipette thinner than a human hair filled with saline solution and placed the glass pipette around a single rod, which sprouts from the retina of mice like a blade of grass.

Then, Silverman and Yue recorded an electrical current from the rod that essentially reflects the signal coming from the rhodopsin/opsin-G protein cascade.

By using mathematical tools to analyze the electrical signal, Yue and Silverman found that the electrical signal triggered by a single G protein molecule was only one-twelfth to one-fourteenth the size of estimates of signals coming from a single rhodopsin molecule.

Thus, they estimated that one rhodopsin activates approximately 10-20 G protein molecules.

Yau had previously found that, in a similar signaling cascade that facilitates the sense of smell in mice, one activated receptor molecule has a very low probability of activating one G protein molecule.

By comparison, the finding that such signaling systems in vision trigger 10-20 molecules may reflect the visual system’s unique need to detect light in very dim light conditions, without having to group together information from multiple rods, which would sacrifice spatial resolution.

More information: Wendy W. S. Yue et al, Elementary response triggered by transducin in retinal rods, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817781116
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Provided by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


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