Cannabis use in those with depression has almost doubled since 2017

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The prevalence of cannabis, or marijuana, use in the United States increased from 2005 to 2017 among persons with and without depression and was approximately twice as common among those with depression in 2017.

The findings, which are published in Addiction, come from a survey-based study of 728,691 persons aged 12 years or older.

“Perception of great risk associated with regular cannabis use was significantly lower among those with depression in 2017, compared with those without depression, and from 2005 to 2017 the perception of risk declined more rapidly among those with depression.

At the same time, the rate of increase in cannabis use has increased more rapidly among those with depression,” said corresponding author Renee Goodwin, PhD, MPH, of Columbia University and The City University of New York.

The prevalence of past 30-day cannabis use among those with depression who perceived no risk associated with regular cannabis use was much higher than that among those who perceived significant risk associated with use (38.6% versus 1.6%, respectively).

Certain groups appeared more vulnerable to use. For instance, nearly one third of young adults (29.7%) aged 18-25 with depression reported past 30-day use.

Certain groups appeared more vulnerable to use. For instance, nearly one third of young adults (29.7%) aged 18-25 with depression reported past 30-day use.

In 2017, the prevalence of past month cannabis use was 18.9% among those with depression and 8.7% among those without depression. Daily cannabis use was common among 6.7% of those with depression and among 2.9% of those without.


The process of marijuana decriminalization started in 1970 with medical professionals having access to it for medical purposes. In the United States eight states and Washington, D.C. voted to legalize adult use of marijuana. Marijuana was first legalized by the state legislature in Vermont in January 2018. Marijuana use is legal in Colorado, Alaska, California, Montana, Oregon, Vermont, Hawaii, Nevada, Washington, and Maine for recreational and medical purposes.

Advocates believe that legalization raises revenue, lowers criminal justice expenditure, improves public health and traffic safety, and stimulates the economy. Furthermore, legalization aimed to reduce the crime rate reported in these states.

Critics believe legalization exacerbates marijuana use, increases crime and raises legal issues, affects public health and safety, and lowers teen educational achievement. There is no clear answer to whether legalizing marijuana can save lives and protect our public health system.

We identified primary studies, systematic reviews, official reports, and state-issued documents addressing the effects of marijuana legalization in various states. 

We also assessed the medical use of marijuana in different “marijuana-unfriendly” jurisdictions in the US. Our main hypothesis was that the legalization of marijuana is associated with various negative outcomes. 

We established criteria that provided the basis for making decisions consistent with desired outcomes and research goals.

Each state was analyzed using the following criteria: 

1. Marijuana use before and after legalization

2. Marijuana use in youth

3. Violent crime rate

4. Fatal car crashes and accidents

5. Admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities 

6. Drug-related emergency department (ED) visits 

7. Alcohol- and drug-induced death and suicide rates 

8. Marijuana revenues

The trends and patterns are expected to vary before and after legalization in the states included in this article. Thus, the available information provides a useful perspective on what other states should expect from legalization and the related policies. 

The legalization of marijuana in the US has received several opinions on the changes in the rate of marijuana use as well as other factors associated with its consumption. Our analysis includes Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and other states as well as Washington, D.C. A summary of the marijuana legalization timeline is presented in Table 1

Table 1

Marijuana legalization and the start of adult-use retail sales by state

Source: [1]

Ballot MeasureDate Ballot Measure PassedDate Possession LegalizedDate Retail Sales BeganNumber of Non-Medical Stores in Operation as of 11/7/2016
Alaska11/4/20142/24/201510/1/2016147
California11/8/201611/9/2016State-level retail licenses are expected to start being issued on 1/1/2018; issuance of local licenses will vary by locality.None
Colorado11/6/201212/10/20121/1/2014504
Maine11/8/20161/30/2017Retail licenses are expected to be issued on 2/1/2018None
Massachusetts 11/8/201612/15/2016Retail sales are expected to commence on 7/18/2018None
Nevada 11/8/20161/1/2017Sales through existing medical marijuana outlets started on 7/1/201737
Oregon 11/4/20147/1/2015Early retail sales of marijuana to adults 21 and over began at medical marijuana dispensaries on 10/1/2015 and licenses for adult-use retailers began issuing on 10/2/2016.507
Washington11/6/201212/6/20127/8/2014516
Washington, D.C. 11/4/20142/26/2015Retail sales remain unlawfulNone

Colorado legalized marijuana in 2012, with changes in trends before and after the legalization period. Table ​Table11 shows that California legalized marijuana on November 9, 2016 following a vote cast on November 8, 2016. Retail sales of marijuana commenced on January 1, 2018 after the provision of licenses by the state. 

The state of Washington legalized marijuana on December 6, 2012, on recreation grounds, thereby becoming one of the states permitting the use and sale of this drug. The proposal on permissive use was launched in 1998, before authorization in 2012 for medical and recreational use among adults of age >21 years. The state of Oregon legalized marijuana on July 1, 2015, with the retail sales commencing immediately. The move was taken since the inception of the ballot on November 8, 2014. This formed the earliest legalization period on marijuana within Oregon with 147 non-medical retail stores established to realize marijuana sales after authorization.

In Vermont, 2011-2012 had the highest consumption of marijuana at 13.4% as compared to 7.5% in the entire country. The levels dropped to 11.3%, 11.4%, and 10.9% in the preceding years. 

In Michigan, the vote for marijuana use was proposed in 2008 and later legalized in November 2018. The impact of legalization changed the use of cannabis, thereby becoming the first illicit substance legalized within the state of Michigan. 

Figure ​Figure11 represents the legalization status of marijuana across the US, for medical or recreational purposes, as detailed in Table ​Table1. The maps1. The maps also illustrate the expansion of marijuana to several states post-2012.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is cureus-0011-00000005806-i01.jpg
Figure 1
State marijuana legalization status, 2018Source: National Conference of State Legislatures. http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx
CBD, cannabidiol

Review

Part 1: Cannabis use before and after legalization

The effect of marijuana legalization for recreational purposes on the rate of marijuana use has been a topic of considerable debate. Table 2 presents the percentage of past-year marijuana use among persons aged ≥12 years, categorized by age group (2002-2014).

Table 2

Percentage of the past-year marijuana use* among all persons aged ≥12 years, by age group / per state — National Survey on Drug Use and Health

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002–2014

CI, confidence interval

*Past-year marijuana use is defined as those who reported the use of marijuana within 12 months preceding the date of interview, which also included those who reported 30 days preceding the date of interview.

Colorado2002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-2014
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age group (years)
Total15.7 (13.8-17.7)14.1 (11.9-16.6)12.0 (10.0-14.2)12.5 (10.6-14.7)13.7 (11.8-15.9)14.3 (11.9-17.1)15.7 (12.9-19.0)18.5 (15.2-22.3)16.7 (14.6-18.9)15.9 (13.2-19.1)19.2 (15.7-23.3)20.7 (17.9-23.8)
12–1719.1 (15.9-22.9)18.8 (15.5-22.6)17.3 (14.3-20.9)16.8 (13.7-20.4)17.7 (14.1-22.0)17.4 (13.7-21.9)20.0 (16.1-24.5)20.5 (16.9-24.7)20.0 (16.5-24.1)17.1 (13.9-21.0)18.4 (14.6-23.0)22.8 (18.8-27.3)
18–2535.9 (30.9-41.2)30.2 (25.8-35.0)32.2 (26.7-38.4)36.8 (30.9-43.1)35.3 (30.5-40.4)35.4 (29.7-41.5)37.4 (29.5-45.9)39.9 (32.7-47.5)42.7 (37.6-48.1)41.6 (36.0-47.5)44.2 (38.2-50.3)45.2 (40.0-50.6)
≥2611.6 (9.5-14.2)10.6 (8.0-14.0)7.6 (5.6-10.3)7.7 (5.9-10.0)9.5 (7.4-12.2)10.4 (7.9-13.7)11.6 (8.8-15.1)14.5 (11.1-18.8)11.7 (9.7-14.1)11.4 (8.5-15.1)15.1 (11.2-19.9)16.3 (13.2-19.9)
California2002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-2014
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age group (years)
Total11.7 (10.6-13.0)11.4 (10.3-12.6)11.8 (10.8-12.9)11.8 (10.8-12.9)11.6 (10.5-12.7)11.8 (10.6-13.0)13.0 (11.9-14.2)13.8 (12.6-15.1)14.1 (12.9-15.4)14.1 (13.0-15.3)14.1 (12.9-15.5)14.7 (13.6-15.9)
12–1713.6 (12.3-15.1)14.5 (13.1-15.9)13.8 (12.4-15.4)12.9 (11.5-14.5)12.9 (11.5-14.5)13.1 (11.7-14.8)14.9 (13.3-16.8)15.8 (14.0-17.9)17.0 (15.1-19.1)16.0 (14.4-17.8)13.6 (12.1-15.3)14.6 (13.0-16.5)
18–2528.5 (26.2-30.9)27.7 (25.2-30.4)27.7 (25.5-30.0)28.7 (26.4-31.1)28.2 (26.0-30.5)29.4 (27.1-31.8)31.7 (29.3-34.2)32.4 (30.0-34.9)32.5 (30.3-34.8)33.6 (31.0-36.3)34.8 (32.1-37.6)34.3 (31.9-36.9)
≥268.4 (7.2-9.8)8.0 (6.8-9.4)8.6 (7.5-10.0)8.6 (7.4-9.9)8.2 (7.1-9.6)8.2 (6.9-9.7)9.1 (7.9-10.6)10.0 (8.6-11.5)10.3 (8.9-11.9)10.2 (9.0-11.7)10.4 (9.0-11.9)11.2 (9.9-12.5
Alaska2002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-2014
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age group (years)
Total16.2 (14.3-18.2)16.2 (14.3-18.3)17.6 (14.8-20.9)15.6 (12.9-18.7)14.8 (12.3-17.7)15.9 (13.4-18.6)17.2 (14.5-20.3)18.8 (15.3-22.8)18.6 (15.9-21.6)20.6 (18.1-23.2)20.8 (18.1-23.8)20.0 (17.3-23.0)
12–1718.3 (15.1-22.1)17.6 (14.1-21.9)16.8 (13.3-21.0)16.2 (12.9-20.2)15.6 (12.5-19.4)15.6 (12.3-19.6)16.1 (12.8-20.1)16.5 (13.1-20.7)17.0 (13.7-20.9)14.6 (11.7-18.1)13.9 (11.2-17.1)17.2 (13.8-21.3)
18–2540.1 (34.9-45.6)37.4 (32.7-42.3)35.1 (30.2-40.3)33.7 (28.8-39.0)33.4 (27.5-39.9)32.3 (26.5-38.8)34.5 (29.7-39.6)35.8 (30.3-41.8)38.4 (32.7-44.4)39.8 (34.2-45.8)36.1 (31.2-41.2)36.6 (31.1-42.6)
≥2611.7 (9.3-14.5)11.9 (9.8-14.5)14.4 (11.0-18.5)11.9 (8.9-15.9)11.2 (8.1-15.2)12.8 (10.0-16.2)14.1 (10.9-18.1)15.8 (11.6-21.1)14.9 (12.1-18.3)17.8 (15.0-20.9)18.9 (15.5-22.8)17.2 (13.9-21
Maine2002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-2014
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age group (years)
Total12.9 (10.7-15.4)12.6 (10.5-15.1)12.5 (10.8-14.4)12.7 (10.5-15.3)12.3 (10.3-14.5)12.4 (10.4-14.8)14.4 (12.1-16.9)15.0 (13.0-17.3)14.6 (12.4-17.0)15.4 (12.9-18.3)17.1 (14.2-20.4)20.3 (17.5-23.5)
12–1718.9 (15.7-22.6)18.7 (15.3-22.7)20.1 (15.9-25.0)18.7 (14.9-23.2)17.0 (13.7-20.8)15.8 (13.2-18.7)12.5 (9.8-15.9)13.9 (11.0-17.4)14.7 (11.7-18.3)15.4 (12.3-19.1)15.5 (12.5-19.0)15.9 (12.8-19.5)
18–2537.9 (32.7-43.3)38.4 (33.3-43.9)37.9 (33.4-42.7)41.5 (37.1-46.0)41.2 (36.2-46.3)37.0 (32.6-41.6)41.6 (35.5-47.9)44.1 (37.9-50.6)38.2 (33.4-43.4)35.8 (32.2-39.4)39.9 (35.8-44.3)43.4 (38.5-48.5)
≥268.3 (6.3-11.0)7.9 (5.9-10.5)7.6 (5.8-9.9)7.6 (5.4-10.7)7.6 (5.5-10.3)8.6 (6.6-11.3)10.8 (8.7-13.4)11.0 (8.8-13.6)11.2 (8.5-14.5)12.6 (9.7-16.2)14.1 (11.0-17.9)17.6 (14.4-21.4)
Massachusetts2002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-2014
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age group (years)
Total16.1 (13.9-18.7)14.2 (12.0-16.8)11.7 (9.9-13.8)12.4 (10.5-14.7)13.0 (10.7-15.7)11.3 (9.5-13.4)14.6 (12.4-17.3)16.6 (14.2-19.2)15.2 (13.0-17.6)15.1 (12.7-17.8)15.4 (13.0-18.1)17.1 (14.5-20.1)
12–1721.3 (17.6-25.5)18.8 (15.7-22.2)17.4 (14.0-21.4)17.4 (13.7-21.7)17.3 (13.4-22.2)16.8 (13.5-20.7)17.1 (14.5-19.9)17.6 (14.3-21.6)19.4 (16.4-22.8)18.9 (15.9-22.4)14.8 (12.0-18.0)15.7 (12.8-19.1)
18–2540.2 (34.9-45.7)40.4 (35.9-45.1)38.8 (34.1-43.7)39.0 (35.4-42.6)39.0 (34.1-44.1)36.1 (31.1-41.5)40.4 (35.0-45.9)44.9 (39.1-50.8)43.1 (37.9-48.6)40.8 (35.0-46.8)43.5 (38.1-49.0)44.8 (40.1-49.6)
≥2611.7 (8.7-15.4)9.4 (6.9-12.7)6.7 (4.8-9.1)7.4 (5.5-10.1)8.0 (5.9-10.9)6.3 (4.7-8.6)9.8 (7.5-12.6)11.5 (9.0-14.5)9.8 (7.5-12.6)10.1 (7.6-13.4)10.5 (8.3-13.3)12.5 (9.7-15.8)
Nevada2002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-2014
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age group (years)
Total12.4 (10.5-14.5)10.7 (9.0-12.7)10.4 (8.6-12.5)11.8 (9.7-14.2)11.9 (9.7-14.6)11.7 (9.4-14.5)11.7 (9.3-14.5)12.4 (9.9-15.2)13.7 (11.6-16.0)14.4 (11.8-17.4)14.3 (11.8-17.2)12.9 (10.8-15.4)
12–1720.7 (16.5-25.6)17.6 (14.6-21.0)14.4 (11.5-17.9)14.2 (10.6-18.9)14.0 (11.4-17.2)16.4 (13.4-20.0)17.9 (14.4-22.1)13.9 (10.2-18.7)16.3 (11.8-22.1)18.6 (14.2-24.1)16.6 (13.2-20.8)14.9 (11.5-19.1)
18–2526.9 (23.0-31.3)24.3 (20.6-28.5)27.0 (22.2-32.6)25.6 (21.0-30.8)22.3 (18.7-26.5)25.3 (21.0-30.2)27.1 (22.3-32.4)27.0 (22.1-32.5)31.7 (23.0-41.9)32.0 (23.5-42.0)29.9 (24.2-36.3)31.8 (26.8-37.2)
≥269.0 (7.0-11.5)7.6 (5.9-9.9)7.2 (5.3-9.6)9.2 (7.0-12.1)10.1 (7.3-13.7)9.1 (6.3-12.8)8.6 (6.0-12.1)9.9 (7.4-13.3)10.4 (8.1-13.3)11.0 (8.0-15.0)11.5 (8.7-15.1)9.7 (7.3-12.8)
Oregon2002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-2014
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age group (years)
Total14.8 (11.8-18.4)13.6 (10.7-17.1)14.1 (12.1-16.5)14.0 (12.2-16.2)14.5 (11.9-17.4)15.1 (12.6-18.1)15.4 (13.4-17.7)16.5 (14.3-18.9)16.9 (14.7-19.3)18.4 (15.8-21.4)20.6 (17.2-24.5)20.1 (17.3-23.1)
12–1716.4 (13.3-20.1)18.1 (14.8-22.0)19.4 (15.1-24.5)19.7 (15.3-25.1)16.5 (13.5-20.1)16.7 (13.0-21.1)19.4 (16.0-23.4)21.0 (17.2-25.4)18.6 (15.0-22.9)15.4 (12.6-18.8)16.4 (13.3-20.1)18.3 (14.7-22.7)
18–2536.6 (30.0-43.7)34.6 (29.3-40.4)35.9 (31.3-40.8)32.9 (28.1-38.1)33.9 (28.5-39.8)37.7 (33.3-42.3)38.7 (34.4-43.1)39.9 (35.4-44.6)40.4 (35.5-45.4)38.4 (33.2-43.8)34.9 (29.5-40.7)37.7 (32.9-42.8)
≥2610.9 (7.9-14.8)9.4 (6.6-13.2)9.7 (7.5-12.6)10.2 (8.1-12.8)11.1 (8.5-14.4)11.4 (8.9-14.6)11.4 (9.3-13.9)12.3 (9.8-15.2)12.9 (10.4-15.9)15.6 (12.6-19.2)18.9 (14.9-23.6)17.5 (14.4-21.1)
Washington2002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-2014
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age group (years)
Total13.6 (11.2-16.5)11.9 (9.9-14.2)11.7 (9.8-13.8)12.7 (10.4-15.5)12.5 (10.0-15.4)13.3 (10.6-16.4)13.3 (10.9-16.2)14.3 (11.8-17.3)15.6 (12.9-18.7)16.2 (13.5-19.3)18.5 (15.7-21.6)19.4 (16.9-22.3)
12–1717.4 (14.0-21.3)15.2 (12.0-19.0)11.4 (8.7-14.8)13.9 (11.0-17.5)13.7 (11.4-16.3)13.5 (10.9-16.6)15.2 (12.3-18.5)14.4 (11.8-17.4)16.9 (13.5-21.0)16.0 (12.7-20.0)15.5 (12.4-19.2)17.4 (13.8-21.7)
18–2536.5 (31.8-41.6)28.7 (23.3-34.8)29.5 (24.3-35.4)32.7 (27.2-38.6)31.4 (26.1-37.2)29.8 (25.4-34.5)33.8 (29.6-38.4)39.9 (34.4-45.7)40.5 (34.6-46.7)37.2 (32.4-42.3)37.9 (33.0-43.1)34.3 (29.2-39.8)
≥269.2 (6.8-12.3)8.5 (6.2-11.5)8.6 (6.6-11.1)9.2 (6.9-12.2)9.2 (6.6-12.6)10.6 (7.7-14.4)9.8 (7.0-13.5)10.1 (7.4-13.7)11.3 (8.6-14.7)12.7 (9.7-16.5)15.7 (12.4-19.6)17.3 (14.2-20.8)
District of Columbia2002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-2014
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Age group (years)
Total15.3 (12.9-18.0)14.4 (12.1-17.0)15.2 (12.9-17.8)14.8 (12.7-17.1)15.9 (13.5-18.6)15.9 (13.7-18.3)14.4 (11.7-17.6)16.3 (13.2-19.9)18.7 (15.4-22.5)20.3 (17.3-23.7)20.8 (17.7-24.4)21.4 (18.9-24.1)
12–1715.1 (12.3-18.4)12.1 (9.7-15.1)14.5 (11.3-18.4)13.5 (10.7-17.0)12.9 (10.1-16.2)14.6 (11.9-17.8)16.8 (13.0-21.6)19.0 (14.9-24.0)18.8 (15.1-23.1)17.8 (15.1-20.9)19.5 (16.2-23.4)21.7 (18.1-25.7)
18–2537.2 (32.7-41.9)30.3 (25.4-35.8)32.8 (28.0-38.1)37.5 (32.8-42.6)39.0 (33.6-44.6)37.0 (32.0-42.4)32.8 (28.6-37.2)33.5 (29.9-37.4)37.5 (33.0-42.2)42.8 (37.6-48.2)42.6 (37.1-48.3)38.9 (34.1-44.0)
≥2611.0 (8.3-14.3)11.5 (9.2-14.4)12.1 (9.6-15.1)10.5 (8.5-13.0)11.2 (8.6-14.3)11.3 (9.0-14.1)10.0 (7.2-13.8)12.2 (8.9-16.4)14.4 (10.8-19.0)15.2 (11.9-19.2)16.1 (12.6-20.2)17.6 (14.6-20.9)

Table ​Table33 presents the annual average percentages of marijuana use in the past year, categorized by age group and state (2016 and 2017). This data shows the pre- and post-legalization rates of marijuana use. 

Table 3

Marijuana use in the past year, by age group and state: Percentages, annual averages based on 2016 and 2017 NSDUHs

Note: State and census region estimates, along with the 95% Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. For the “Total US” row, design-based (direct) estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals are given.

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2016 and 2017

NSDUH, National Survey on Drug Use and Health

State12+ (Estimate)12+ (95% Confidence Interval)12-17 (Estimate)12-17 (95% Confidence Interval)18-25 (Estimate)18-25 (95% Confidence Interval)26+ (Estimate)26+ (95% Confidence Interval)18+ (Estimate)18+ (95% Confidence Interval)
Total US14.50(14.20-14.80)12.19(11.77-12.63)33.91(33.17-34.66)11.61(11.27-11.95)14.73(14.41-15.06)
Northeast15.10(14.51-15.71)12.29(11.48-13.15)37.92(36.47-39.39)11.77(11.06-12.51)15.36(14.73-16.02)
Midwest13.88(13.37-14.41)12.74(12.04-13.47)33.63(32.50-34.78)10.74(10.12-11.39)14.00(13.44-14.57)
South12.25(11.82-12.69)10.99(10.38-11.62)30.28(29.30-31.29)9.49(8.96-10.05)12.38(11.91-12.86)
West18.17(17.51-18.85)13.58(12.69-14.51)36.86(35.44-38.29)15.62(14.82-16.45)18.64(17.93-19.38)
Alaska22.73(20.53-25.10)16.51(13.99-19.39)39.44(35.37-43.66)20.74(18.20-23.53)23.43(21.06-25.98)
California17.39(16.46-18.37)13.30(11.95-14.79)36.53(34.37-38.74)14.63(13.54-15.80)17.81(16.79-18.87)
Colorado24.86(22.61-27.25)16.97(14.25-20.08)48.81(44.51-53.12)21.88(19.31-24.69)25.65(23.24-28.23)
District of Columbia26.35(24.04-28.81)14.60(12.07-17.56)53.20(48.47-57.87)21.90(19.34-24.69)27.01(24.59-29.57)
Maine21.94(19.74-24.31)15.81(13.26-18.75)45.67(41.47-49.92)19.36(16.85-22.13)22.46(20.11-24.99)
Massachusetts19.96(17.96-22.12)16.39(13.77-19.39)44.93(40.59-49.36)16.03(13.83-18.51)20.28(18.16-22.58)
Nevada16.82(14.82-19.02)14.37(11.94-17.19)35.81(31.75-40.08)14.34(12.11-16.90)17.06(14.93-19.43)
Oregon26.51(24.19-28.97)17.01(14.37-20.01)47.57(43.39-51.78)24.36(21.70-27.22)27.38(24.89-30.02)
Washington22.49(20.26-24.89)14.97(12.51- 17.81)42.12(37.97-46.39)20.30(17.78-23.07)23.21(20.81-25.78)

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Marijuana use has been on a constant rise in the US, from 2002 to 2017, as indicated in the above tables. The increase in usage has been recognized among young people aged ≥12 years.


Source:
Wiley
Media Contacts:
Penny Smith – Wiley
Image Source:
The image is in the public domain.

Original Research: Closed access
“Rapid increase in the prevalence of cannabis use among persons with depression in the U.S., 2005‐2017: the role of differentially changing risk perceptions”. Lauren R. Pacek, Andrea H. Weinberger, Jiaqi Zhu, Renee D. Goodwin.
Addiction doi:10.1111/add.14883.

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