Understanding the Long-Term Pulmonary Consequences of COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study


COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, emerged as a global pandemic in December 2019, originating in Wuhan, China. Since then, it has rapidly spread worldwide, impacting millions of lives. As of June 1, 2023, India reported a significant number of cases, with 44,990,876 confirmed cases and 531,872 deaths. While global efforts have led to a decline in new cases, the aftermath of COVID-19 continues to pose challenges, particularly concerning long-term pulmonary sequelae.

Prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, related coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV were known to cause severe respiratory illnesses with lasting effects. Studies on SARS-CoV-1 revealed persistent lung abnormalities even years after infection, with fibrotic interstitial lung disease reported in a significant percentage of patients.

Recent evidence suggests that COVID-19 survivors may also face long-term pulmonary complications. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe manifestation of COVID-19, often leading to fibrotic interstitial lung disease in some individuals. Research by Thille et al. highlighted the progression of alveolar damage to fibrosis in patients with ARDS, with fibrosis occurring in a substantial proportion of cases, particularly those with prolonged illness duration.

To further investigate the impact of post-COVID-19 lung damage, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted. The study aimed to assess lung function, exercise tolerance, radiographic findings, and quality of life in patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Herein, we present a detailed analysis of the study methodology, results, and implications.

Material and Methods

Study Subjects: The study recruited patients who had been managed for COVID-19 at a hospital between August 11, 2020, and January 14, 2021, and provided consent to participate.

Study Design: This observational study aimed to evaluate post-COVID-19 lung damage. Sample size calculation was based on previous findings, with a focus on assessing restrictive ventilatory defects.

Ethics Statement: The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, with approval obtained from the institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all participants.

Methods: Data collection included demographic information, clinical history, and COVID-19 severity classification. Pulmonary function tests, exercise tolerance assessments, chest radiography, and quality of life measurements were conducted. Statistical analysis was performed to assess associations between variables and disease severity.


A total of 207 subjects were included, with a mean age of 48.7 years and a predominance of male participants (68.1%). The distribution of disease severity categories was as follows: mild (59.9%), moderate (19.8%), and severe/critical (20.3%). The ‘COVID-19 pneumonia’ group had a significantly higher mean age and a higher prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes mellitus.

Regarding symptoms, dyspnea and cough were prevalent, with a higher incidence observed in the ‘COVID-19 pneumonia’ group. Baseline blood biomarkers were also elevated in the ‘COVID-19 pneumonia’ group, indicating a more severe inflammatory response.

Statistical Analysis

Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between demographic factors, comorbidities, symptoms, and disease severity. Biomarkers such as Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio, CRP, D dimer, and LDH were significantly elevated in the ‘COVID-19 pneumonia’ group.


This study delves into the respiratory function of patients from Southeast Asia who have recuperated from COVID-19 infection, marking one of the initial attempts at exploring this aspect within the region. Our cohort, with an average age of 48.7 years and a male majority (68.1%), differs slightly from similar studies conducted in China, where the mean age was 49.1 years with a more balanced gender distribution.

Analysis of respiratory symptoms revealed that dyspnea was prevalent in 49.3% of our subjects, with cough reported in 27.1%. Comparisons with studies from Austria and Italy showed higher incidences of these symptoms among our cohort, indicating potentially differing post-COVID-19 symptomatology across populations. Moreover, the ‘COVID-19 pneumonia’ group exhibited significantly more symptoms compared to those with mild disease, emphasizing the impact of disease severity on post-recovery symptoms.

Comorbidity rates were notably higher in our cohort compared to Chinese subjects, with 72.5% of patients having underlying health conditions. Diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases were among the most common comorbidities, reflecting a significant burden of pre-existing health conditions among COVID-19 survivors in our study population.

Several studies from China and Europe have examined post-COVID-19 pulmonary function, with varying results. Our study, among the largest to date, reveals a higher prevalence of lung function impairment compared to previous reports. Specifically, we observed impairments in DLCO in 44.4% of subjects, with more severe impairments in those with moderate and severe disease. This contrasts with findings from studies focusing on spirometric parameters, suggesting that traditional pulmonary function tests may underestimate the residual effects of COVID-19 infection.

The impact of COVID-19 on different racial and ethnic groups has been well-documented, with disparities observed in infection rates and mortality. Our study adds to this body of knowledge, showing that Indian patients may experience more severe post-recovery lung function impairments compared to European and Chinese cohorts, potentially influenced by underlying social determinants of health.

Long-term effects of COVID-19 on lung function remain a topic of ongoing research. Studies have shown persistent impairments in pulmonary function up to 100 days post-recovery, with a subset of patients experiencing gradual improvement followed by decline. The prevalence of permanent pulmonary fibrosis post-COVID-19 remains uncertain, necessitating long-term follow-up studies to elucidate the true extent of this complication.

Exercise capacity assessments have revealed desaturation tendencies during exertion in COVID-19 survivors, indicating potential limitations in physical performance. However, our study did not find significant reductions in exercise capacity metrics, highlighting the complexity of post-COVID-19 functional impairments.

The management of post-COVID-19 pulmonary complications presents a challenge, with pulmonary rehabilitation emerging as a promising intervention to improve lung function and quality of life. Pharmacotherapy options, including steroids and anti-fibrotic drugs, warrant further investigation to prevent and manage pulmonary fibrosis effectively.


The study provides valuable insights into the long-term pulmonary consequences of COVID-19. Patients with more severe disease manifestations during the acute phase experienced a higher burden of post-COVID-19 lung damage, as evidenced by impaired lung function, exercise tolerance, and quality of life. These findings underscore the importance of continued monitoring and rehabilitation efforts for COVID-19 survivors to mitigate long-term respiratory complications.

Overall, the study highlights the need for comprehensive post-COVID-19 care strategies to address the diverse and potentially enduring pulmonary sequelae of the disease.

reference link : https://journals.plos.org/globalpublichealth/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgph.0002884



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