Strengthening the Rule of Law in the Indo-Pacific: An Analysis of the Japan, Philippines, United States and Australia Maritime Cooperative Activity


In an era characterized by complex geopolitical challenges, the principles of international law and cooperation remain crucial. The recent Maritime Cooperative Activity (MCA), conducted by Japan, the Philippines, the United States, and Australia, is a testament to these nations’ commitment to upholding the rule of law in maritime affairs. This article delves into the intricate legal and political aspects of the MCA, held within the Philippine Exclusive Economic Zone on April 7, 2024, emphasizing its significance in maintaining regional peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific.

Background: The Significance of UNCLOS

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which serves as the legal framework for the regulation of all maritime activities, stands at the core of the MCA. UNCLOS not only establishes guidelines for naval and maritime operations but also underscores the importance of freedom of navigation and overflight. These principles are critical in international waters, especially in contentious regions like the South China Sea, making the MCA’s adherence to UNCLOS particularly significant.

The 2024 Maritime Cooperative Activity: Objectives and Execution

The MCA was meticulously planned to align with international law, including UNCLOS, and the domestic laws of the participating countries. It aimed at enhancing interoperability among the defense forces of the involved nations through the standardization of doctrines, tactics, techniques, and procedures. This initiative not only demonstrated professional military interactions but also reinforced the safety of navigation and the protection of states’ rights and interests.

Legal Foundations and Political Implications

The MCA stands on solid legal ground, anchored in the 2016 South China Sea Arbitral Tribunal Award. This award, recognized by the participating countries as final and legally binding, nullifies excessive maritime claims and upholds the rights of states under UNCLOS. By reinforcing this decision, the MCA participants underline their support for a rules-based international order.

Statements from National Leaders

Each leader of the participating countries expressed strong support for the MCA, highlighting its importance for regional and global stability:

  • Australia: The Honourable Richard Marles emphasized Australia’s dedication to a global rules-based order and the critical role of UNCLOS in regional stability.
  • Japan: His Excellency KIHARA Minoru highlighted Japan’s commitment to a Free and Open Indo-Pacific and its opposition to unilateral actions that disrupt peace in the South China Sea.
  • Philippines: The Honorable Gilberto C. Teodoro Jr. focused on the Philippines’ Comprehensive Archipelagic Defense Concept, aiming to enhance cooperation and maintain good order at sea.
  • United States: The Honorable Lloyd J. Austin III affirmed the U.S. commitment to lawful maritime operations and the promotion of peace in the region.

Analysis of the MCA’s Impact

The MCA is more than a display of military cooperation; it is a strategic maneuver in a region where tensions frequently escalate due to territorial disputes and power contests. The activity serves multiple purposes:

  • Deterrence: It signals to potential aggressors that unilateral actions will not go unchallenged.
  • Capacity Building: It enhances the maritime and air force capabilities of the Philippines while fostering interoperability among the allies.
  • Legal Enforcement: It reinforces the application of international law, particularly UNCLOS, in disputed waters.

The Naval Assets of the Maritime Cooperative Activity

The recent Maritime Cooperative Activity (MCA), held within the Philippine Exclusive Economic Zone, not only served as a testament to the robust international cooperation among Japan, the Philippines, the United States, and Australia but also showcased an impressive array of naval might. This chapter delves into the details of the naval and air force units that participated in the MCA, providing a comprehensive overview of the military vessels involved.

Details of Participating Vessels

BRP Antonia Luna (FF151) – Philippines

  • Type: Guided-Missile Frigate
  • Class: Jose Rizal-class
  • Builder: Hyundai Heavy Industries, South Korea
  • Design: HDF-2600
  • Commissioned: The BRP Antonia Luna is the second of the two frigates in this class, designed to enhance the offshore patrol capabilities of the Philippine Navy. Equipped with advanced weaponry and sensors, it represents a significant step in modernizing the Philippine naval forces.

JS Akebono (DD108) – Japan

  • Type: Guided-Missile Destroyer
  • Class: Murasame-class
  • Builders: Multiple shipbuilders in Japan
  • Entered Service: 1996
  • Details: The JS Akebono is one of the nine ships in the Murasame-class. These destroyers are a core component of Japan’s maritime defense, designed to engage multiple threats through their sophisticated sensors and missile systems.

HMAS Warramunga (FFH152) – Australia

  • Type: Multi-Role Frigate
  • Class: Anzac-class (MEKO200)
  • Builder: Blohm + Voss/ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems, Germany
  • Variant: This class also includes vessels serving with Greece (Hydra-class) and Portugal (Vasco da Gama-class). The MEKO 200 design is known for its flexibility and capability in various maritime roles, from fleet defense to anti-submarine warfare.

USS Mobile (LCS-26) – United States

  • Type: Littoral Combat Ship
  • Class: Independence-class
  • Builder: General Dynamics, Austal USA
  • Commissioned: 2021
  • Details: The USS Mobile is part of the innovative Independence-class of littoral combat ships designed for operations close to shore. It features advanced modular capabilities allowing for rapid role changes, from surface combat to mine countermeasures and anti-submarine warfare.

    Scheme Table: Overview of Vessels Participating in the MCA

    VesselCountryTypeClassBuilderKey Features
    BRP Antonia LunaPhilippinesGuided-Missile FrigateJose Rizal-classHyundai Heavy IndustriesAdvanced sensors, weaponry, modern frigate design
    JS AkebonoJapanGuided-Missile DestroyerMurasame-classMultiple Japanese shipbuildersComprehensive missile systems, sophisticated sensors
    HMAS WarramungaAustraliaMulti-Role FrigateAnzac-classThyssenKrupp Marine SystemsFlexible design, multi-role capabilities
    USS MobileUnited StatesLittoral Combat ShipIndependence-classGeneral Dynamics, Austal USAModular capabilities, close-shore operations

    Analysis of Strategic Implications

    The diversity and capability of the vessels participating in the MCA underscore the strategic intent of the exercise. Each ship brings unique strengths to the collective defense arrangement, enhancing the interoperability and readiness of the allied forces. This alignment not only strengthens regional security but also sends a clear message about the commitment of these nations to uphold international maritime law and ensure a stable, free, and open Indo-Pacific.

    The 2024 Maritime Cooperative Activity marks a significant milestone in regional defense cooperation. By leveraging the advanced capabilities of these naval assets, the participating countries demonstrate their preparedness to act decisively in support of peace and stability in the region. This chapter not only highlights the technical specifications of the involved vessels but also emphasizes the broader strategic context of their deployment, illustrating the complexities and dynamics of modern naval operations in a contested geopolitical landscape.

    Future Implications

    Looking ahead, the MCA sets a precedent for future maritime cooperation in the Indo-Pacific. It offers a framework for how nations can collaboratively uphold international law and contribute to regional stability. As tensions persist, particularly in the South China Sea, the importance of such cooperative endeavors will only increase.

    In conclusion, the Maritime Cooperative Activity of 2024 is a pivotal moment in the Indo-Pacific’s geopolitical landscape. By adhering to international law and promoting cooperation, the participating nations—Japan, the Philippines, the United States, and Australia—not only strengthen their military ties but also champion a stable and peaceful maritime domain. As global dynamics evolve, the principles exemplified by the MCA will be crucial in navigating the challenges that lie ahead, ensuring that the rule of law prevails over might.

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    • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
    • 2016 South China Sea Arbitral Tribunal Award
    • Statements from the defense leaders of Australia, Japan, the Philippines, and the United States

    This detailed exploration of the MCA highlights its comprehensive approach to maritime security and the rule of law, offering valuable insights into the mechanisms of international cooperation and legal governance in one of the world’s most crucial maritime corridors.


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