Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace Teams with German Partners Diehl Defence and MBDA Deutschland to Develop the Tyrfing, an Advanced Super-Sonic Strike Missile (3SM)


In a significant advancement for European defense capabilities, Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace has partnered with German companies Diehl Defence and MBDA Deutschland to develop the Tyrfing, an advanced Super-Sonic Strike Missile (3SM). This new missile is set to replace the Naval Strike Missile currently deployed on Norwegian naval vessels starting in 2035, with induction into the German Navy expected to follow soon after. This collaborative program began in 2021, receiving public endorsements from the Norwegian and German governments, with Germany expected to announce its commissioning plans for the new missile later this year. This partnership marks a crucial step in enhancing the defense capabilities of both nations and their allies.

Background and Genesis of the Project

The genesis of the Tyrfing project lies in the strategic defense requirements of Norway and Germany. The Naval Strike Missile (NSM), currently in service, has served its purpose admirably but is now approaching the end of its operational life. The need for a more advanced, supersonic, and maneuverable missile became apparent to meet evolving surface threat scenarios. In November 2023, the Norwegian government officially announced the initiative to develop the 3SM, setting the stage for a significant leap in missile technology.

The Collaborating Partners

Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace

Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace, part of the Kongsberg Gruppen ASA, is a leading defense contractor based in Norway. The company has a rich history of developing advanced missile systems and has been at the forefront of defense technology innovation. Their experience with the Naval Strike Missile and other defense projects made them a natural leader for the Tyrfing project.

Diehl Defence

Diehl Defence, headquartered in Germany, is renowned for its advanced defense systems and innovative technology solutions. With a strong focus on missile technology, Diehl Defence brings decades of expertise in developing and manufacturing sophisticated defense systems. Their participation in the 3SM project enhances the collaborative effort with their extensive knowledge and technical capabilities.

MBDA Deutschland

MBDA Deutschland, a subsidiary of the European defense giant MBDA, is a key player in the missile systems market. MBDA has a long history of successful missile development projects across Europe. Their involvement in the Tyrfing project underscores the importance of multinational collaboration in advancing defense technology and ensuring the security of European nations.

The Tyrfing Missile: A Technological Marvel

The Tyrfing missile, or 3SM, represents a significant technological advancement in the field of defense. The missile is designed to be highly maneuverable, with supersonic speeds and long-range strike capabilities. This section delves into the technical specifications, development process, and expected capabilities of the Tyrfing missile.

Image : Illustration of 3SM (Kongsberg image)

Technical Specifications

The Tyrfing missile is expected to feature state-of-the-art propulsion systems, advanced guidance technologies, and a highly efficient warhead design. Key specifications include:

  • Speed: Supersonic, capable of exceeding Mach 2.
  • Range: Over 500 kilometers, allowing for long-distance engagements.
  • Guidance System: Integrated GPS, inertial navigation system (INS), and advanced seeker technologies for precision targeting.
  • Warhead: Multi-effect warhead designed for maximum impact against various target types, including naval vessels and land-based assets.
  • Propulsion: Advanced solid rocket motor combined with ramjet technology for sustained supersonic cruise.

Development Process

The development of the Tyrfing missile is a complex and multi-phase process involving extensive research, prototyping, testing, and refinement. The project will leverage the combined expertise of Kongsberg, Diehl Defence, and MBDA Deutschland to ensure the missile meets the highest standards of performance and reliability. The development phases include:

  • Conceptual Design: Initial design and feasibility studies to define the missile’s key parameters and performance goals.
  • Prototype Development: Building and testing early prototypes to validate design concepts and identify potential improvements.
  • Systems Integration: Integrating various subsystems, including propulsion, guidance, and warhead, to create a fully functional missile.
  • Testing and Evaluation: Extensive testing, including lab tests, wind tunnel tests, and live-fire exercises, to ensure the missile meets operational requirements.
  • Production: Setting up manufacturing processes and facilities for full-scale production of the missile.

Expected Capabilities

The Tyrfing missile is designed to provide several key capabilities that will enhance the defense posture of Norway, Germany, and their allies. These capabilities include:

  • Supersonic Speed: The missile’s supersonic speed makes it difficult for enemy defenses to intercept, increasing the likelihood of mission success.
  • Maneuverability: Advanced aerodynamic design and guidance systems allow the missile to perform evasive maneuvers, avoiding enemy countermeasures.
  • Long-Range Strike: The extended range enables the missile to engage targets from a safe distance, reducing the risk to launch platforms.
  • Precision Targeting: State-of-the-art guidance technologies ensure high accuracy, minimizing collateral damage and increasing mission effectiveness.
  • Versatility: The missile’s design allows it to engage a wide range of targets, from naval vessels to land-based installations, providing a flexible strike option for military planners.

Strategic Importance and Implications

The development of the Tyrfing missile holds significant strategic importance for both Norway and Germany, as well as for the broader European defense landscape. This section explores the geopolitical and strategic implications of the 3SM project.

Enhancing National Defense Capabilities

For Norway and Germany, the Tyrfing missile represents a critical enhancement to their national defense capabilities. The missile’s advanced features will provide a credible deterrent against potential adversaries, ensuring the security of national interests. The ability to project power over long distances and engage a variety of targets enhances the operational flexibility of both nations’ armed forces.

Strengthening NATO and European Defense

The collaboration between Kongsberg, Diehl Defence, and MBDA Deutschland also has broader implications for NATO and European defense. The Tyrfing missile will be available to allied nations, strengthening collective defense capabilities and contributing to NATO’s deterrence posture. The development of a cutting-edge missile system within Europe also reduces dependency on non-European defense technologies, promoting greater strategic autonomy.

Promoting Multinational Cooperation

The Tyrfing project exemplifies the benefits of multinational cooperation in defense. By combining the strengths and expertise of companies from Norway and Germany, the project leverages diverse technological capabilities and resources. This collaborative approach fosters innovation, improves cost-efficiency, and enhances the overall quality of the final product. It also sets a precedent for future defense collaborations within Europe.

Economic and Industrial Impact

The development and production of the Tyrfing missile will have significant economic and industrial impacts. The project is expected to create jobs, stimulate technological innovation, and generate economic growth in both Norway and Germany. The defense industry, being a high-tech sector, will benefit from the influx of resources and the development of new technologies that can have spillover effects into other sectors of the economy.

Collaboration and Partnerships

The success of the Tyrfing project hinges on the effective collaboration and partnership between Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace, Diehl Defence, and MBDA Deutschland. This section delves into the dynamics of this collaboration, highlighting the roles and contributions of each partner, as well as the synergies created through their cooperation.

Roles and Contributions

Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace

As the lead partner, Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace is responsible for overall project management and coordination. Their expertise in missile development, particularly with the Naval Strike Missile, positions them to drive the conceptual design and systems integration phases. Kongsberg’s strong relationships with the Norwegian Defence Forces and national research organizations ensure seamless collaboration and alignment with national defense objectives.

Diehl Defence

Diehl Defence brings extensive experience in advanced missile technologies and manufacturing. Their role focuses on the development and production of key missile components, including propulsion systems and warheads. Diehl’s advanced manufacturing capabilities and quality assurance processes are critical to ensuring the reliability and performance of the Tyrfing missile.

MBDA Deutschland

MBDA Deutschland contributes cutting-edge guidance and seeker technologies, leveraging their expertise in precision targeting systems. Their role includes the development and integration of advanced guidance subsystems, ensuring the missile’s accuracy and effectiveness. MBDA’s extensive network within the European defense industry also facilitates broader collaboration and resource sharing.

Synergies and Innovations

The collaboration between these three companies creates significant synergies, combining their individual strengths to achieve a common goal. The pooling of resources, knowledge, and expertise accelerates the development process and fosters innovation. The integrated approach to missile development also ensures that the final product meets the highest standards of performance, reliability, and operational effectiveness.

Government Support and Endorsement

The Tyrfing project has received strong support and endorsement from the Norwegian and German governments. This section explores the governmental backing, policy frameworks, and strategic objectives that underpin the project.

Norwegian Government Support

The Norwegian government’s announcement of the Tyrfing initiative in November 2023 highlights its commitment to enhancing national defense capabilities. The government’s support includes funding for research and development, as well as facilitating collaboration between Kongsberg and national defense organizations. This support ensures that the project aligns with Norway’s strategic defense priorities and contributes to national security.

German Government Endorsement

The German government’s endorsement of the 3SM project reflects its recognition of the importance of advanced missile systems in modern warfare. Germany’s support includes financial backing, regulatory facilitation, and coordination with the Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces). This endorsement underscores the strategic alignment between Germany’s defense objectives and the capabilities offered by the Tyrfing missile.

Policy Frameworks and Strategic Objectives

Both Norway and Germany have articulated clear policy frameworks and strategic objectives that guide the development of the Tyrfing missile. These frameworks emphasize the importance of technological innovation, multinational cooperation, and the enhancement of defense capabilities. The Tyrfing project aligns with these objectives, contributing to the broader goal of ensuring national and regional security.

Testing and Validation

The development of the Tyrfing missile involves rigorous testing and validation to ensure its performance and reliability. This section outlines the testing phases, methodologies, and expected outcomes.

Testing Phases

The testing process for the Tyrfing missile is divided into several key phases, each designed to validate different aspects of the missile’s performance:

  • Component Testing: Individual components, such as the propulsion system, guidance system, and warhead, are tested in isolation to ensure they meet design specifications.
  • Subsystem Testing: Integrated subsystems are tested to validate their functionality and performance in a controlled environment.
  • Prototype Testing: Full-scale prototypes are tested to assess overall performance, including speed, range, maneuverability, and targeting accuracy.
  • Live-Fire Exercises: The missile is tested in realistic operational scenarios to evaluate its effectiveness in engaging targets and overcoming defenses.

Testing Methodologies

Testing methodologies for the Tyrfing missile include a combination of laboratory tests, simulation, and live-fire exercises. Laboratory tests involve the use of advanced test equipment and facilities to assess component performance under controlled conditions. Simulation tools are used to model the missile’s behavior and performance in various scenarios, providing valuable data for refinement. Live-fire exercises are conducted in collaboration with the Norwegian and German armed forces, allowing for real-world validation of the missile’s capabilities.

Expected Outcomes

The testing and validation process aims to achieve several key outcomes:

  • Performance Validation: Confirm that the missile meets or exceeds all performance specifications, including speed, range, and accuracy.
  • Reliability Assessment: Ensure the missile performs reliably under various conditions, including extreme temperatures, humidity, and operational stress.
  • Operational Effectiveness: Demonstrate the missile’s effectiveness in engaging and neutralizing targets in realistic combat scenarios.
  • Safety and Compliance: Verify that the missile meets all safety and regulatory standards, ensuring it can be deployed and operated safely.

Production and Deployment

The production and deployment of the Tyrfing missile involve a coordinated effort between the industry partners, governments, and armed forces. This section outlines the production process, deployment plans, and timelines.

Production Process

The production process for the Tyrfing missile involves several key stages:

  • Manufacturing Setup: Establishing production facilities, securing supply chains, and setting up quality assurance processes.
  • Component Production: Manufacturing individual missile components, including propulsion systems, guidance units, and warheads.
  • Assembly and Integration: Assembling components into complete missiles and integrating subsystems to ensure functionality.
  • Quality Assurance: Conducting thorough inspections and tests to ensure each missile meets performance and reliability standards.
  • Batch Production: Scaling up production to meet the requirements of the Norwegian and German armed forces, as well as potential export customers.

Deployment Plans

The deployment of the Tyrfing missile is planned in several phases, starting with the Norwegian Navy and followed by the German Navy. The deployment plans include:

  • Initial Deployment: Equipping Norwegian naval vessels with the Tyrfing missile, replacing the existing Naval Strike Missile.
  • Operational Testing: Conducting operational testing and training exercises to integrate the missile into naval operations.
  • Full Deployment: Rolling out the missile across the Norwegian Navy’s fleet and transitioning to operational use.
  • German Navy Deployment: Coordinating with the German Navy to equip their vessels with the Tyrfing missile, following a similar deployment process.


The timelines for production and deployment are as follows:

  • 2024-2026: Prototype development, testing, and validation.
  • 2026-2028: Production setup, component manufacturing, and initial assembly.
  • 2028-2030: Full-scale production and quality assurance.
  • 2030-2032: Initial deployment and operational testing with the Norwegian Navy.
  • 2032-2035: Full deployment with the Norwegian Navy and coordination for German Navy deployment.
  • 2035: Induction of the Tyrfing missile into operational service with the Norwegian Navy, followed by the German Navy.

The development of the Tyrfing missile by Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace, in collaboration with Diehl Defence and MBDA Deutschland, represents a significant advancement in European defense capabilities. This advanced supersonic strike missile, set to replace the Naval Strike Missile, will enhance the defense posture of Norway, Germany, and their allies. The project, supported by the Norwegian and German governments, underscores the importance of multinational cooperation, technological innovation, and strategic alignment in modern defense. As the project progresses through development, testing, and deployment, the Tyrfing missile is poised to become a cornerstone of European defense, providing a credible deterrent and a powerful strike capability for the future.

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