Tensions Rise: Belarusian Su-25 Jet Carrying ‘Training Nuclear Munitions’ Sparks Geopolitical Concern


The appearance of a Belarusian Su-25 Frogfoot attack jet with what Russian authorities describe as “training nuclear munitions” under its wings has brought a new level of tension to the ongoing joint Russian-Belarusian tactical nuclear weapons exercise. This development, clearly aimed at the West, underscores the growing geopolitical strains as NATO allies continue to support Ukraine. The specific nature of the jet’s payload remains unknown, but the incident adds to Russia’s nuclear signaling, emphasizing its dissatisfaction with NATO’s backing of Ukraine.

The Russian Ministry of Defense released a video featuring a pair of Belarusian Su-25s in a hangar, guarded by armed soldiers. The video shows a pilot being strapped into the nearest jet, which is equipped with two underwing stores wrapped in protective coverings. The location, likely Lida Air Base, is home to Belarus’ Frogfoot fleet. The exact nature of these concealed stores is unclear, but the video, which includes an interview with Russian Lt. Gen. Igor Kolesnikov, strongly suggests they represent tactical nuclear weapons.

Lt. Gen. Kolesnikov, head of the 12th Main Directorate of the Ministry of Defense (12th GUMO), a unit responsible for the safekeeping and technical maintenance of Russian nuclear weapons, stated that the stores were intended to simulate tactical nuclear weapons. He mentioned that the 12th Main Directorate ensured the delivery of training nuclear munitions to field storage points and operational airfields, where they were prepared and delivered by both Russian and Belarusian personnel.

The possibility exists that the “training nuclear munitions” could be examples of the IAB-500, a practice bomb designed to simulate a nuclear weapon, producing a characteristic mushroom-like cloud and resembling real nuclear gravity bombs in appearance. However, very little is known about actual Russian air-launched tactical nuclear bombs, which date back to the Cold War and include the RN-40 and RN-41, designed for jets like the MiG-29, Su-24, and Su-27. Although Soviet Su-25s were reportedly capable of carrying nuclear weapons, it remains unclear if they ever fulfilled this role operationally.

Image : Scheme IAB-500 – copyright @debuglies.com

  1. Tip: The foremost part of the bomb designed to penetrate the target upon impact. It’s usually made of a durable material like hardened steel to withstand the initial impact forces.
  2. Nut: A fastening device used to secure the tip to the rest of the bomb structure. It ensures the stability and alignment of the tip during impact.
  3. Aerodynamic Fairing: A streamlined cover that reduces air resistance during the bomb’s descent. It helps maintain the bomb’s speed and trajectory for accurate targeting.
  4. Fuse: A mechanical or electronic device that initiates the detonation sequence. It can be set to activate on impact or after a predetermined delay.
  5. Detonator (5 TNT charges): The component that triggers the explosive reaction. It consists of five charges of TNT (Trinitrotoluene), which are highly explosive and sensitive to the fuse’s activation.
  6. Extension Cord: An electrical cable that connects the fuse to the detonator. It ensures the signal from the fuse is transmitted accurately to initiate the explosion.
  7. Wire Bundle: A collection of wires used to connect various electrical components within the bomb. It ensures proper communication and functionality of the internal systems.
  8. TNT: High explosive material used as the primary charge. It provides the explosive force necessary to achieve the bomb’s destructive purpose.
  9. Phosphorus (4 compartments): Chemical compartments filled with phosphorus, which ignites upon exposure to air, creating intense heat and light. It enhances the bomb’s incendiary effects.
  10. Plug Connector OGsR-I500: An electrical connector that links the bomb’s internal systems to external devices or control systems. It allows for pre-launch checks and system integrations.
  11. TGA 11 Explosive (3 compartments): Three separate compartments filled with TGA 11, another type of high explosive. These compartments add to the bomb’s overall explosive power.
  12. Kerosene: Fuel used for incendiary purposes. When the bomb detonates, the kerosene spreads and ignites, causing widespread fire damage.
  13. Screw: A fastener that holds various components of the bomb together. It ensures structural integrity during handling, transportation, and deployment.
  14. Belt: A securing strap used to hold components in place. It provides additional stability to the bomb’s internal parts during movement.
  15. Tightening Device: A mechanism used to adjust and secure the belt. It ensures that the internal components are tightly held and reduces the risk of shifting during flight.
  16. Stabilizer: Fins or vanes located at the rear of the bomb. They help maintain a stable flight path and ensure the bomb hits the target accurately.
  17. Housing for a TGM-55 Red Tracer: A compartment designed to hold a TGM-55 red tracer. The tracer helps track the bomb’s trajectory visually.
  18. Contact Terminals: Electrical connectors that interface with external systems or detonators. They allow for the transmission of signals to initiate the detonation sequence.

Belarusian state media has also released images of the country’s Su-25s participating in the drills, with underwing stores blurred out. In at least one instance, the blurring mistakenly covered the aircraft’s drop tanks instead of the bombs, suggesting that the visible stores are standard high explosive or cluster munitions. This raises further questions about the nature of the “training nuclear munitions” seen in the recent footage from the Russian Ministry of Defense.

In August 2022, Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko, a close ally of Russia, announced that some Belarusian combat aircraft had been modified to carry nuclear weapons. Initial reports suggested the Su-24 Fencer strike aircraft had been modified, but it later emerged that the Su-25 was involved. This choice is surprising given that Belarus also operates the more capable Su-30SM Flanker multirole fighters, which could be modified for a nuclear role if needed. With a speed of only 590 mph when carrying a modest weapons load and a range of about 320 miles on internal fuel at low altitude, the Frogfoot is far from ideal for nuclear strike missions, especially against NATO defenses.

Ahead of Lukashenko’s announcement, the Belarusian government cited Russian President Vladimir Putin, who mentioned the possibility of modifying Belarusian Su-25s, though without explicitly stating a nuclear mission. Putin also announced in June 2022 that nuclear-capable Iskander-M short-range ballistic missile systems would be transferred to Belarus “in the next few months.”

Since then, both Putin and Lukashenko have confirmed that unspecified tactical nuclear weapons have been deployed on Belarusian territory. It is now evident that Russian and Belarusian forces are practicing some aspects of the nuclear mission using Belarusian Su-25s. The extent of training that Belarusian personnel have received in nuclear weapon use, however, remains unclear. Such training is complex and requires significant time and effort to master.

The command and control structure for the nuclear weapons in Belarus is also uncertain. It is likely that these weapons are under Russian control and would be released to Belarusian forces only if necessary. This arrangement would mirror the way U.S. B61 nuclear bombs stored at bases in Europe can be made available to certain NATO members under the alliance’s nuclear-sharing agreements. Regardless, the presence of nuclear weapons on Belarusian soil means they could be deployed more quickly and with less warning, increasing the risk of nuclear conflict.

Hosting nuclear weapons also raises the possibility of Belarus fighting alongside Russia in a potential nuclear conflict with NATO. Lukashenko has issued strong rhetoric, warning against escalating tensions with Belarus, which he asserts would provoke a response from the Union State of Russia and Belarus, both of which possess nuclear weapons.

The nuclear developments in Belarus have also prompted officials in neighboring Poland to consider joining the NATO nuclear-sharing program, highlighting the broader regional implications of these moves.

Recent reports suggest that Russia’s threshold for deploying tactical nuclear weapons may be lower than previously thought. According to a widely discussed report from February, such a response could be triggered by significant losses to the Russian Navy, such as losing a fifth of its ballistic missile submarines or three cruisers. The evolving situation in Ukraine and the closer ties between Russia and Belarus indicate that a nuclear capability on Belarusian territory could become a more permanent aspect of Europe’s security environment.

The Enigmatic Role of the IAB-500 and Air-Launched Tactical Nuclear Bombs in Russian-Belarusian Military Exercises

The increasing tension between Russia and NATO, heightened by the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, has manifested in various military maneuvers and displays of strength. One such instance is the appearance of Belarusian Su-25 Frogfoot attack jets, reportedly equipped with “training nuclear munitions,” during joint Russian-Belarusian tactical nuclear exercises. This article delves into the possibility that these training munitions could be IAB-500 practice bombs and examines the historical and contemporary context of Russian air-launched tactical nuclear bombs, including the RN-40 and RN-41, designed for aircraft like the MiG-29, Su-24, and Su-27.

Image : A Russian Su-30SM carrying an IAB-500 practice bomb that simulates a nuclear detonation

Replacing the IAB-500 and IU-59 Nuclear Explosion Imitators: A Soviet Legacy

In January 2024, the Kremlin announced the development of a new type of nuclear explosion imitator set to replace the aging IAB-500 and IU-59 devices, originally created during the Soviet era. These old simulation bombs, regarded by Russian authorities as relics of a bygone technological era, are shrouded in secrecy, even from Russia’s close ally, Belarus. This reluctance to share information underscores the strategic importance and sensitive nature of these devices. Despite Belarus’s own nuclear weapon training programs, its military personnel reportedly remain unfamiliar with the appearance and mechanics of a nuclear bomb.

Given the renewed relevance of this topic, it is essential to delve into the history, technical details, and current status of the IAB-500 and IU-59 nuclear explosion imitators.

Understanding Nuclear Explosion Simulators in Soviet/Russian Context

A nuclear explosion simulator, in Soviet and Russian terminology, is essentially a pyrotechnic or explosive device designed to mimic the effects of a nuclear blast. These devices generate a powerful explosive wave, intense light radiation, and the iconic “mushroom cloud” associated with nuclear explosions. However, unlike actual nuclear bombs, these simulators do not produce radioactive fallout or the associated harmful consequences. This capability was critical for training and military exercises during the Cold War, allowing forces to practice under simulated nuclear attack conditions without the catastrophic effects of real nuclear detonations.

The IAB-500: Technical Specifications and History

The IAB-500 was developed as a training counterpart to the RN-24 nuclear bomb, intended for tactical aircraft use. Structurally, the IAB-500 resembles a fuel tank shaped like an aerial bomb, filled with a 75% to 25% mixture of diesel and gasoline, and equipped with cylinders containing red phosphorus. Upon detonation, this combination is designed to create a fireball with a diameter of 90-120 meters within 3.5 seconds. The resulting “mushroom cloud” can rise up to 1 kilometer high and be visible from up to 30 kilometers away. This visual and explosive mimicry provided a realistic training environment for Soviet and later Russian military personnel.

Production of the IAB-500 took place during the Soviet era, and its use continued into the 21st century. Notably, in 2020, the Russian military demonstrated the IAB-500 during an exercise involving the Russian Aerospace Forces, deploying the device from a Su-30SM fighter jet. Despite this demonstration, the current inventory of IAB-500 devices within the Russian military remains undisclosed.

The IU-59: Predecessor to the IAB-500

Before the development of the IAB-500, the Soviet Union utilized the IU-59 nuclear explosion imitator. This device, essentially a TNT bomb, stands 1.1 meters tall and weighs 117 kilograms. Unlike the aerial deployment of the IAB-500, the IU-59 required a special mortar for detonation and up to 25 minutes of preparation time. Safety protocols dictated that personnel maintain a distance of at least 200 meters from the explosion’s epicenter to avoid injury. The IU-59, although technologically simpler, provided foundational experience in simulating nuclear explosions. However, detailed images and extensive documentation of the IU-59 are scarce and primarily found in historical archives.

Current Developments and Strategic Implications

The announcement of a new nuclear explosion simulator under development highlights Russia’s continued focus on maintaining realistic training capabilities for its military forces. These new devices are expected to incorporate advancements in pyrotechnic and explosive technologies, ensuring more accurate and effective simulations of nuclear blasts.

From a strategic perspective, the development and use of nuclear explosion simulators serve multiple purposes. They provide essential training for military personnel, allowing them to experience the conditions of a nuclear explosion without the associated risks. This training is crucial for maintaining readiness and effectiveness in the event of actual nuclear warfare. Additionally, these simulations serve as a psychological tool, demonstrating to both domestic and international audiences the preparedness and technological capabilities of the Russian military.

Secrecy and Information Control

The Russian approach to information control regarding these devices is notable. By keeping details about the IAB-500 and IU-59, as well as their successors, under wraps, Russia maintains a strategic advantage. The secrecy surrounding these devices prevents adversaries from gaining detailed knowledge about their capabilities and deployment methods. Furthermore, the reluctance to share information with even close allies like Belarus suggests a cautious approach to technology transfer, ensuring that sensitive military technologies remain within Russia’s control.

The IAB-500 and IU-59 nuclear explosion imitators represent a significant aspect of Soviet and Russian military history, providing essential training capabilities without the devastating effects of actual nuclear explosions. As Russia develops new simulators to replace these aging devices, the strategic importance of realistic training and information control remains evident. The continued use and advancement of these technologies underscore Russia’s commitment to maintaining a robust and prepared military force in an era of evolving global security dynamics.

Historical Context of Russian Air-Launched Tactical Nuclear Bombs

RN-40 and RN-41

The RN-40 and RN-41 tactical nuclear bombs were developed during the Cold War for use by Soviet-era jets such as the MiG-29, Su-24, and Su-27. These bombs were part of the Soviet Union’s extensive nuclear arsenal, designed to provide tactical nuclear strike capabilities in regional conflicts and deter NATO forces.


The RN-40 is a free-fall bomb with a yield of approximately 10-50 kilotons. It was designed to be carried by various Soviet aircraft and delivered via a low-altitude, high-speed approach to avoid detection and interception by enemy air defenses. The bomb’s relatively low yield made it suitable for tactical strikes against military installations, troop concentrations, and critical infrastructure.


The RN-41, an evolution of the RN-40, features improvements in yield, accuracy, and delivery mechanisms. With a yield range of 20-100 kilotons, the RN-41 was designed to be more versatile and effective in a broader range of tactical scenarios. It also incorporated advancements in guidance and fuzing technologies, enhancing its ability to penetrate hardened targets and deliver a more precise and devastating impact.

Belarusian Su-25 Participation in Drills

Belarusian state media has documented the involvement of the country’s Su-25s in the joint tactical nuclear exercises with Russia. These images often show underwing stores blurred out, ostensibly to conceal the nature of the munitions being carried. In some cases, the blurring appears to have been mistakenly applied to drop tanks rather than bombs, suggesting that the visible stores may be standard high explosive or cluster munitions rather than nuclear simulators.

The Role of Su-25 in Nuclear Training

The Su-25, a rugged and versatile ground-attack aircraft, has historically been capable of carrying nuclear weapons. However, its role in nuclear delivery has been limited due to its relatively short range and vulnerability to advanced air defenses. The current exercises aim to simulate various aspects of nuclear operations, including the preparation, delivery, and deployment of tactical nuclear munitions.

Analysis of Recent Developments

The presence of Su-25s with purported training nuclear munitions in recent drills raises several questions about the nature of these exercises and their implications for regional security. The deliberate obfuscation of the underwing stores suggests a desire to maintain ambiguity and keep potential adversaries guessing about the true capabilities and intentions of the participating forces.

Possible Motives and Strategic Implications

Russia’s decision to use the Su-25 in these drills, despite its limitations, may be driven by several factors:

  • Signaling to NATO: The exercises serve as a stark reminder to NATO and its allies of Russia’s nuclear capabilities and its willingness to integrate these assets into regional military operations. This signaling aims to deter further Western support for Ukraine and underscore the risks of escalating the conflict.
  • Testing and Training: The use of the IAB-500 and other training munitions allows Russian and Belarusian forces to practice nuclear deployment scenarios without the risks associated with live nuclear weapons. This training enhances readiness and ensures that personnel are prepared to execute nuclear missions if necessary.
  • Political Messaging: The participation of Belarusian forces in these exercises, under the watchful eye of Russian commanders, highlights the close military cooperation between the two countries. This cooperation serves as a message to the West that Belarus is fully aligned with Russia’s strategic objectives and is prepared to support its nuclear posture.

Technical and Operational Considerations

Challenges in Nuclear Delivery

Despite the symbolic value of these exercises, the practical challenges of using the Su-25 for nuclear delivery should not be underestimated. The aircraft’s limited range and speed make it vulnerable to interception by advanced air defense systems. Additionally, the complexities of nuclear command and control require robust communication and coordination mechanisms to ensure the safe and effective deployment of these weapons.

Enhancing Su-25 Capabilities

To address these challenges, modifications to the Su-25 and its supporting infrastructure may be necessary. Potential upgrades could include:

  • Enhanced Avionics: Upgrading the aircraft’s avionics and navigation systems to improve accuracy and survivability during nuclear missions.
  • Increased Payload: Modifying the airframe to carry larger or more advanced nuclear munitions, increasing the overall strike capability.
  • Improved Range: Adding external fuel tanks or developing aerial refueling capabilities to extend the operational range of the Su-25.

Broader Strategic Context

The involvement of Belarusian forces in these nuclear exercises must be viewed within the broader context of regional security dynamics. The ongoing conflict in Ukraine, coupled with NATO’s support for Kyiv, has intensified the geopolitical rivalry between Russia and the West. The joint exercises with Belarus serve as a potent reminder of the stakes involved and the potential for escalation.

Implications for NATO

NATO must carefully consider the implications of these exercises and the potential for nuclear escalation. While the immediate threat may be limited, the presence of nuclear-capable aircraft and munitions in Belarus poses a significant challenge to regional stability. NATO’s response must balance deterrence and diplomacy, ensuring that it is prepared to counter any potential threats while avoiding unnecessary provocation.

Regional Security Architecture

The presence of Russian nuclear weapons on Belarusian soil also raises questions about the regional security architecture. The command and control arrangements for these weapons, as well as the mechanisms for their potential use, must be scrutinized to understand the risks and potential triggers for escalation. Ensuring transparency and communication between all parties is essential to maintaining stability and preventing misunderstandings that could lead to conflict.

The appearance of Belarusian Su-25 Frogfoot attack jets with “training nuclear munitions” underscores the complex and evolving nature of nuclear deterrence in the region. While the IAB-500 practice bomb and other training munitions provide valuable opportunities for training and readiness, the broader strategic implications cannot be ignored. As Russia and Belarus continue to strengthen their military cooperation, NATO and its allies must remain vigilant, prepared to respond to potential threats while seeking avenues for dialogue and de-escalation. The stakes are high, and the path forward requires careful navigation to ensure regional security and stability.

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