Power at Risk: Israel’s Preparedness for Conflict-Induced Blackouts Examined

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The escalating tensions between Israel and Hezbollah have put the spotlight on the vulnerability of Israel’s power grid. Yoram Laredo, director of the National Emergency Management Authority (NEMA), highlights that the core issue isn’t merely the management of the grid but its susceptibility to attacks, particularly from non-state actors like Hezbollah, supported by Iran. As Israel braces for potential full-scale conflict, the implications for the nation’s power infrastructure are dire.

The prospect of war between Israel and Hezbollah is a growing concern, not just for the immediate threats of violence and destruction, but for the potential catastrophic impact on Israel’s power grid. This issue has been brought to the forefront by senior state electricity official Shaul Goldstein, who warned of the severe disruptions that such a conflict could cause to Israel’s power infrastructure.

The Warning and Its Repercussions

Last week, Shaul Goldstein, a senior official in Israel’s electricity sector, issued a stark warning that a war with Hezbollah could lead to severe disruptions in the power infrastructure. Speaking at a conference in Sderot, he predicted that within three days of the power going down, Israel would become unlivable. Goldstein’s comments quickly attracted backlash, not least from Energy Minister Eli Cohen and Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) CEO Meir Spiegler. The organization Goldstein heads, Independent System Operator Ltd (NOGA), distanced itself from his statements, further highlighting the controversy and the gravity of the issue.

The Vulnerability of Israel’s Power Grid

According to Yoram Laredo, director of the National Emergency Management Authority, the core of the problem is not the management of the grid but its vulnerability to attacks. Israel’s power infrastructure, known for its high quality and reliability, is now facing unprecedented threats. Hezbollah has been launching near-daily attacks on Israel, which could escalate into a full-scale war, posing a significant risk to the nation’s power supply. This scenario is reminiscent of Russia’s systematic attacks on Ukraine’s power facilities, leading to concerns about similar vulnerabilities in Israel’s grid.

Potential Impact of Attacks

  • Scale of Attacks: In a full-scale war, Hezbollah could launch up to 5,000 rockets, precision missiles, and suicide drones daily at Israel, specifically targeting critical infrastructure. This barrage would likely lead to two nationwide power outages lasting 24 to 48 hours, affecting 60% of the country, with additional regional and local outages lasting weeks or even months in some areas​.
  • Specific Threats to Infrastructure: The attacks could cripple power stations, transmission lines, and substations. Bar Cohen, head of the Emergency and Operations Department at Israel Independence System Operator (NOGA), predicts numerous disruptions due to missile fire and resultant fires, which could damage electricity pylons and cause widespread outages​.
  • Economic and Social Implications: The disruptions in power supply would not only affect households but also critical services like hospitals. The Ministry of Health is preparing by purchasing generators and establishing energy and oxygen centers in municipalities. However, prolonged outages could complicate the use of ventilators and other life-support systems, potentially leading to significant casualties​.
  • Natural Gas Dependency: About 70% of Israel’s electricity is generated from natural gas. A comprehensive war would halt natural gas production, forcing a switch to alternative fuels, which are less efficient and more polluting.

Preparedness Measures

  • Strategic Stockpiling: Israel has increased its emergency rations of essential raw materials, food, medicine, and medical equipment, investing approximately 2 billion shekels in preparation for a potential conflict. This stockpiling is critical to ensure a functioning economy during wartime​.
  • Defense Investments: The Israel Electric Corporation has invested 180 million shekels in passive defense measures for power stations to minimize damage from missile attacks. These measures include installing defenses at about 100 substations across the country​​.
  • Backup Systems: Unpublicized emergency meetings have focused on contingency plans, including backup generators and communication strategies to ensure connectivity during prolonged outages. This includes deploying SMS messaging as an alternative to internet-based alerts​​.

Hezbollah’s Capabilities

  • Rocket and Missile Arsenal: Hezbollah’s arsenal includes a range of short to long-range rockets and missiles. Estimates suggest that Hezbollah could fire between 3,000 to 4,000 rockets daily in the early stages of a war, significantly more than the 160 rockets per day during the 2006 conflict​.
  • Drone Warfare: Hezbollah possesses a variety of drones, including loitering munitions and armed drones capable of penetrating deep into Israeli territory. These drones, combined with rocket barrages, could overwhelm Israel’s Iron Dome defense system, allowing more projectiles to hit their targets​.
  • Anti-Tank Weapons: Hezbollah also holds an array of anti-tank weapons, which could be used to target military installations and infrastructure, further complicating Israel’s defensive efforts​.

Challenges

  • Coordination and Communication: One of the significant challenges identified is the lack of coordination and communication between various state bodies. This has led to concerns about the overall preparedness for a comprehensive war. Ensuring effective communication and coordination among these bodies is crucial​ .
  • Public Awareness and Preparedness: Laredo has advised the public to prepare by stocking up on essential items like transistor radios, batteries, and bottled water. Public awareness campaigns and community drills could enhance civilian preparedness for prolonged power outages and other wartime contingencies​​.
  • Cybersecurity Measures: In addition to physical attacks, there is a risk of cyberattacks on Israel’s power grid. Strengthening cybersecurity defenses is vital to protect against such threats and ensure the resilience of the power infrastructure during conflicts​.

The Role of Israel’s Energy Infrastructure

Israel’s dependence on electricity affects nearly every aspect of daily life, from transportation and water supply to communications and commerce. The country’s energy production is heavily reliant on natural gas, which is sourced from three main wells in the Mediterranean Sea. These wells and their associated infrastructure are vulnerable targets in a conflict scenario. Any significant damage to these installations could halt gas flow within a short time, forcing a switch to diesel or coal, both of which have limited reserves.

Natural Gas Dependence

Natural gas is expected to provide 75% of Israel’s power this year. The southernmost rig, Tamar, was temporarily shut down after Hamas’s invasion of Israel on October 7 due to fears of rocket damage. In a potential war with Hezbollah, all three rigs could be preemptively closed, severely impacting the power supply. Most of Israel’s gas-operated power stations are designed to switch to diesel in emergencies, but the reserves of diesel and coal are limited and susceptible to supply chain disruptions.

Efforts to Mitigate the Risk

Efforts are currently underway to bolster Israel’s energy reserves and enhance the defenses around critical power infrastructure. Since October 7, NIS 2 billion ($530 million) has been spent on increasing energy reserves. The IEC is collaborating with various ministries to ensure continuity of essential services and is conducting drills to prepare for potential damages. However, despite these measures, the lack of a centralized body to coordinate responses to widespread power system damage remains a significant concern.

Long-Term Solutions: Renewable Energy and Decentralization

In the long term, increasing the use of renewable energy and developing a decentralized grid are seen as key strategies for enhancing Israel’s energy security. Solar energy, in particular, offers a viable solution given Israel’s abundant sunshine. The move towards decentralization would involve creating microgrids that allow areas to disconnect from the national grid, providing resilience against attacks.

Solar Energy Potential

Currently, renewable energy accounts for only 12% of Israel’s energy mix. Despite this low figure, the potential for solar energy is substantial. Solar panels, coupled with storage batteries and hybrid inverters, could provide households with a reliable source of power even during grid outages. Large solar fields are also less susceptible to total destruction, as missile attacks on such installations would typically damage only a small portion of the panels.

Decentralized Management

Decentralized management of the power grid has been advocated by environmentalists for years but has faced opposition from the IEC. The recent attacks and the vulnerabilities exposed have highlighted the benefits of this approach. The Energy Ministry’s proposed move towards decentralization as part of the Tekuma administration’s rehabilitation plan along the Gaza border is a step in this direction. This plan aims to enhance the resilience of local power systems, allowing for quicker recovery and less dependence on centralized infrastructure.

Immediate Responses and Public Reaction

In the immediate term, many Israelis are turning to diesel generators to prepare for potential outages. However, cleaner and more reliable alternatives are available. Companies like Solax Israel and Inter Plus offer microgrid solutions that integrate solar energy with battery storage, providing a sustainable and resilient option for households and businesses.

Public Awareness and Preparedness

Goldstein’s warning has spurred a significant public reaction, with many seeking ways to ensure their energy security. Educational campaigns and incentives for adopting renewable energy solutions could play a crucial role in increasing public preparedness and reducing reliance on traditional power sources.

Technological Advancements

Advancements in technology are also playing a role in enhancing energy security. Electric cars, which can provide supplementary power to homes, are becoming more common. The integration of hybrid microgrids into new and existing energy systems offers a path towards greater resilience and sustainability.

The looming threat of war with Hezbollah has underscored the vulnerabilities of Israel’s power grid. While immediate measures are being taken to enhance energy reserves and protect critical infrastructure, the long-term solution lies in diversifying the energy mix and decentralizing the power grid. Embracing renewable energy and technological advancements can provide a sustainable and resilient solution to the challenges posed by potential conflicts. The ongoing efforts to prepare for and mitigate the risks highlight the importance of energy security in maintaining national stability and resilience in the face of external threats.

Detailed Technical Data Sheet: Vulnerability of Israel’s Power Grid to Hezbollah Threats

AspectDetails
Primary Energy SourceNatural gas from three main wells in the Mediterranean Sea (Tamar, Leviathan, and Tanin fields)
Energy DependencyNatural gas expected to provide 75% of Israel’s power in 2024
Alternative Energy SourcesSolar energy contributes 12% to Israel’s energy mix; potential for further development in renewable energy
Critical InfrastructureIncludes pipelines, ports, power plants, and offshore gas rigs
Electric Grid ManagementManaged by Independent System Operator Ltd (NOGA) and Israel Electric Corporation (IEC)
Grid VulnerabilitiesSusceptibility to attacks on substations, high-tension towers, and gas processing platforms; potential disruption in case of conflict
Hezbollah’s ArsenalHundreds of precision-guided missiles and tens of thousands of rockets capable of targeting deep into Israeli territory
Daily Attack CapabilityHezbollah capable of launching up to 4,000 missiles per day during conflict
Air Defense CapabilityIsrael’s air defense systems are advanced but may struggle with the volume of attacks in an extended conflict
Energy Security MeasuresNIS 2 billion ($530 million) spent on increasing energy reserves since October 7; preparations include enhancing defenses and conducting drills
Renewable Energy PotentialSignificant potential for solar energy expansion; regulatory barriers and bureaucracy are current challenges
Microgrid DevelopmentProposed move towards decentralized management to enhance resilience; pilot projects planned along Gaza border
Public PreparednessIncreasing use of diesel generators; growing interest in microgrid alternatives with solar panels, storage batteries, and hybrid inverters
Technological IntegrationAdvancements in energy storage and hybrid microgrid technologies; electric cars providing supplementary power

Updated Technical Data Points:

  • Natural Gas Dependency: Natural gas is projected to provide 75% of Israel’s power in 2024, sourced from three main offshore wells. These installations are susceptible to targeted attacks which could severely disrupt the energy supply.
  • Solar Energy Contribution: As of now, solar energy accounts for 12% of Israel’s energy mix. This figure highlights the potential for renewable energy to play a larger role in Israel’s energy strategy.
  • Hezbollah Arsenal: Hezbollah possesses hundreds of precision-guided missiles and tens of thousands of rockets capable of reaching deep into Israeli territory. This capability poses a significant threat to Israel’s energy infrastructure during a conflict.
  • Air Defense: Israel’s air defense systems are advanced but face challenges due to the potential volume of missiles during an extended conflict. Estimates suggest up to 4,000 missiles per day could be launched at the outset of hostilities.
  • Energy Security Measures: Since October 7, Israel has invested NIS 2 billion ($530 million) to bolster energy reserves and protect critical infrastructure. These measures include enhancing defenses and conducting preparedness drills.
  • Renewable Energy and Decentralization: Long-term strategies involve increasing the use of renewable energy, particularly solar, and decentralizing the power grid to create microgrids. These steps aim to enhance resilience and reduce the impact of localized attacks on the power infrastructure.
  • Public Preparedness: In light of potential threats, there has been a notable increase in the use of diesel generators among the public. Additionally, there is growing interest in cleaner, more reliable microgrid alternatives that incorporate solar panels and battery storage.
  • Technological Advancements: Technological innovations, such as the integration of electric cars for supplementary power and advancements in hybrid microgrids, are being explored to enhance energy security and resilience.

Key Findings from Recent Reports:

  • 60% of Israel could experience power outages in the event of a major Hezbollah attack, as discussed by Maj.-Gen. Sami Turgeman at an energy conference. This scenario involves significant damage to the gas-based electricity system, potentially leading to extended blackouts (The Jerusalem Post, March 2024).
  • Potential for extended blackouts: Over 60% of households may face power outages lasting up to 72 hours in a worst-case scenario, although this is considered an extreme and low-probability event. Efforts are ongoing to reduce the likelihood and impact of such scenarios (VINnews, June 2024).
  • Energy Ministry’s preparations: The Energy Ministry, in cooperation with security agencies, has been working to ensure a robust energy supply, including increasing fuel reserves and preparing for extreme scenarios (The Jerusalem Post, June 2024).
  • Public advisories: Israeli citizens are advised to prepare for power outages by having essential supplies like batteries, water, and portable chargers. This preparation aligns with Home Front Command directives (VINnews, June 2024).

These detailed findings and data points highlight the significant vulnerabilities and ongoing efforts to bolster Israel’s power grid against potential threats from Hezbollah. The integration of renewable energy sources and technological advancements in energy storage and distribution are crucial for enhancing resilience and ensuring a stable energy supply in times of conflict.

Connecting Power: Infrastructure Investments Reshape Israel’s Grid

Electricity Infrastructure in Israel

Israel stands as an electricity island, a unique position where its grid network remains unconnected to the systems of neighboring countries. Consequently, Israel must be self-sufficient in meeting its energy demand, which has grown by an average of 3% annually between 2010-2020. Public discussions have emerged about potentially linking Israel to other grid networks, including in Europe, via an undersea interconnector line. As of 2021, the overall installed capacity totaled 21.5 GW, with the parastatal company Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) accounting for 61% of production. Independent power producers covered the remaining production. According to the Electricity Authority, installed capacity by 2025 is projected to reach 27.9 GW to meet the electricity consumption forecasts.

In June 2018, the Government of Israel approved a comprehensive structural reform in the Israeli electricity sector, set to be implemented over eight years (2018-2026). The reform aims to decentralize the IEC, enhance efficiency in the electricity market, and increase competition. As part of this reform, IEC’s share in electricity generation will reduce from 60% to 40%. IEC will retain a monopoly in the transmission and distribution segments, requiring significant upgrades. It will focus on developing a smart and modern grid to improve electricity supply quality.

Natural Gas Development and Exportation

Since the first commercial discovery of natural gas in 2000, Israel has rapidly developed its offshore gas resources. Over the past 20 years, the country has transformed from a net importer of fossil fuels to being self-sufficient and an exporter of natural gas. Coal-generated power is gradually diminishing, accounting for only 21.8% of Israel’s power in 2022, down from 61% in 2012. The Israeli Ministry of Energy’s 2030 goal for electricity generation aims to substitute coal primarily with natural gas, achieving a 70% reliance on natural gas and 30% on renewables, while shutting down all coal plants and retaining some generation capabilities for emergencies. Plans are in place for a gradual transition to electric cars and natural gas trucks, with a ban on imports of gasoline cars starting in 2030.

Domestic consumption of natural gas is steadily growing, reaching 12.7 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2022, a 3% increase from 2021. This growth in natural gas consumption is led by the electricity sector, accounting for 79% (10.1 bcm) of generation sources. In 2009, Noble Energy, a U.S. company (acquired by Chevron in 2020), and its local partners discovered the Tamar field, which until 2020 provided the majority of Israel’s natural gas. The Leviathan gas field, a more recent development by Chevron and its partners, started production in late 2019 and has contingent resources totaling 605 bcm of natural gas. In 2021, Leviathan surpassed Tamar, providing more than 50% of Israel’s natural gas.

Other international oil companies operating in Israel include the Greek company Energean, developing the Karish and Tanin fields (with Karish starting gas production in October 2022), and British companies Cairn and Pharos, awarded blocks A and C in 2019. In addition to meeting domestic demand, Israel’s natural gas export market is growing significantly. Total exports in 2022 increased by 29% compared to 2021, with exports to Egypt growing by 37% and exports to/via Jordan by 16%. The Government of Israel plans to increase gas exports, including a 60% increase in exports from the Tamar field to Egypt starting in 2026. Discussions are also underway to establish a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vessel at the Leviathan gas reservoir to reduce dependence on Egypt’s LNG facilities.

Renewable Energy Challenges and Goals

Despite significant potential for solar power, Israel has fallen short of its renewable energy targets, producing only 10.1% of its electricity from renewable sources in 2022. Factors such as bureaucratic bottlenecks, lack of land resources, underdeveloped transmission infrastructure from remote generation sites, and lower-cost offshore gas discoveries have contributed to this shortfall. In line with commitments to the Paris Agreement, the Israeli government updated its 2015 greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goal in July 2021, targeting a 27% decrease in GHG emission levels by 2030, using 2015 as the base year. An earlier government decision from 2020 set renewable energy targets of 30% of electricity to be generated from renewable sources by 2030. To achieve this goal, Israel will need to increase its overall installed capacity from solar systems to 17.1 GW and its overall storage capacity to approximately 3,000 MW by 2030.

Opportunities for U.S. Companies

Several leading sub-sectors present viable opportunities for U.S. companies, including electricity infrastructure, natural gas, and renewable energy (including energy storage). The Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) is Israel’s state-owned electricity utility company and the second-largest procurement organization in Israel, with 5,000 active suppliers worldwide. In June 2018, the Government of Israel approved a comprehensive structural reform in the Israeli electricity sector, aiming to reduce IEC’s share in electricity generation from 60% to 40%. IEC is planning significant upgrades to the transmission and distribution infrastructure through massive investments, presenting substantial opportunities for U.S. manufacturers of relevant equipment and for U.S. independent power producers (IPPs) to purchase and operate power generation sites.

IEC’s five-year procurement plan (2022-2026) is valued at over $2.5 billion, spanning multiple categories such as transformers, switchgear, protection systems, zero-point earthing equipment, D.C. equipment, power cables, towers, and insulators. As a state-owned company, IEC adheres to Israel’s WTO/GPA agreement on public tender procedures, with selective tendering processes requiring potential suppliers to pre-qualify to be included in IEC’s approved suppliers’ list.

Upcoming projects include the construction of a greenfield 600-900MW gas-fired combined cycle Sorek power plant, the privatization of the 1693MW gas-fired Eshkol power plant, and the establishment of energy storage facilities with a total capacity of 900MW.

Natural Gas Sector Opportunities

Israel plans to leverage its abundant gas resources for the development of a gas-based auxiliary industrial sector. This presents opportunities for IPPs to purchase and operate gas-based electricity generation plants. Additionally, the Ministry of Energy is issuing licenses for small-scale gas-based generation sites for industrial plants, offering opportunities for U.S. manufacturers of gas turbines and engines. The Israeli government periodically issues international tenders for offshore exploration and production licenses, with the fourth bid round launched in December 2022 and closed for submission in July 2023.

Renewable Energy Sector Opportunities

The Government of Israel’s renewable energy targets for 2030 present substantial opportunities for U.S. firms. Suppliers of PV, wind, and storage technology and equipment, suppliers of transmission and distribution equipment for new transmission infrastructure, and IPPs to develop and operate renewable energy generation plants are all viable opportunities. The BIRD Foundation supports joint U.S.-Israel commercial R&D in renewable energy and energy efficiency, publishing new calls for proposals regularly.

Energy Infrastructure Projects

The current scope of infrastructure investment in Israel is lower than in comparable countries. To address this gap, the Israeli government plans large-scale infrastructure projects across various industries, consolidating all projects valued at over 100 million shekels (~$30 million) in the multi-year Infrastructure for Growth workplan. The 2023 workplan includes 228 projects valued at $114 billion in total, with several projects in the environmental sector. A significant portion of these projects will be implemented via a public-private partnership (PPP) model.

In conclusion, Israel’s energy sector is undergoing significant transformations, with substantial investments and reforms aimed at enhancing efficiency, increasing competition, and meeting growing energy demands. The country’s abundant natural gas resources and ambitious renewable energy targets present numerous opportunities for international collaboration and investment, particularly for U.S. companies specializing in relevant technologies and infrastructure development.


APPENDIX 1 – Technical Data Sheet and Scheme Table for Israel’s Energy Sector

Electricity Infrastructure

Installed Capacity

    • 2021: 21.5 GW
    • Projected for 2025: 27.9 GW

    Israel Electric Corporation (IEC)

      • Pre-reform Share in Electricity Generation: 60%
      • Post-reform Objective Share in Electricity Generation: 40%
      • IEC Monopoly: Transmission and distribution segments
      • Planned Upgrades: Smart and modern grid development

      Energy Reforms

        • Reform Timeline: 2018-2026
        • Objectives: Decentralize IEC, enhance efficiency, increase competition

        Recent Developments

          • Undersea Electricity Cable: 150 km cable to link Israel to European and Gulf grids, improving reliability and integrating renewable energy sources.

          Natural Gas

          Domestic Consumption

            • 2022: 12.7 billion cubic meters (bcm)
            • Growth: 3% increase from 2021
            • Electricity Sector Usage: 79% (10.1 bcm)

            Major Gas Fields

              • Tamar Field: Initial major field, discovered by Noble Energy in 2009
              • Leviathan Field: Discovered by Chevron and partners, started production in late 2019, with 605 bcm of natural gas.
              • Karish Field: Developed by Energean, began production in October 2022
              • New Discoveries: Katlan deposit (Olympus)

              Exports

                • 2022 Increase: 29% overall, 37% to Egypt, 16% to/via Jordan
                • Future Plans: Increase Tamar field exports to Egypt by 60% starting 2026, potential LNG vessel at Leviathan to reduce dependency on Egypt’s LNG facilities.

                Renewable Energy

                Current Production

                  • 2022 Contribution: 10.1% of total electricity from renewable sources
                  • 2023 Installed Capacity: 5,903 MW, up from 4,795 MW in 2022.
                  • Record Achievement: March 12, 2024, renewable energy accounted for 51% of total production for the first time.

                  Renewable Energy Targets

                    • 2030 Goals: 30% of electricity from renewable sources
                    • Capacity Increase Needed: Solar capacity to 17.1 GW, storage capacity to approximately 3,000 MW

                    Challenges and Developments

                      • Bureaucratic Bottlenecks: Delays due to lack of land resources and underdeveloped transmission infrastructure
                      • Technological Advances: Development of high-capacity lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries for better energy storage.
                      • Projects: Dual-use solar projects including rooftops, water reservoirs, and agrovoltaic systems

                      Opportunities for U.S. Companies

                      Electricity Infrastructure

                        • IEC Procurement Plan (2022-2026): $2.5 billion investment across multiple categories (transformers, switchgear, etc.)
                        • Upcoming Projects: Construction of 600-900MW gas-fired combined cycle Sorek power plant, privatization of 1693MW gas-fired Eshkol power plant, establishment of energy storage facilities with a total capacity of 900MW

                        Natural Gas

                          • Gas-based Generation Plants: Opportunities for IPPs to purchase and operate
                          • Small Scale Licenses: Issued by the Ministry of Energy for industrial plants

                          Renewable Energy

                            • Equipment Supply: PV, wind, and storage technology
                            • Infrastructure Support: Transmission and distribution equipment for new substations, switching stations, etc.
                            • Development Projects: IPPs to develop and operate renewable energy generation plants

                            Detailed Scheme Table

                            CategoryDetailValue/Description
                            Electricity InfrastructureInstalled Capacity (2021)21.5 GW
                            Projected Capacity (2025)27.9 GW
                            IEC Pre-reform Share60%
                            IEC Post-reform Share40%
                            Reform Timeline2018-2026
                            Recent Developments150 km undersea electricity cable
                            Natural GasDomestic Consumption (2022)12.7 bcm
                            Growth3% from 2021
                            Electricity Sector Usage79% (10.1 bcm)
                            Major FieldsTamar, Leviathan, Karish, Katlan
                            2022 Export Increase29% overall
                            Future Export Plans60% increase to Egypt from Tamar field by 2026
                            Renewable Energy2022 Production10.1% of total electricity
                            2023 Installed Capacity5,903 MW
                            Record Achievement51% renewable production on March 12, 2024
                            2030 Goals30% renewable electricity
                            Capacity Increase NeededSolar: 17.1 GW, Storage: 3,000 MW
                            Technological AdvancesHigh-capacity LFP batteries
                            Opportunities for U.S. CompaniesIEC Procurement Plan (2022-2026)$2.5 billion
                            Upcoming ProjectsSorek power plant, Eshkol power plant, energy storage facilities
                            Gas-based Generation PlantsIPP opportunities
                            Small Scale LicensesIndustrial plants
                            Renewable Energy EquipmentPV, wind, storage technology
                            Infrastructure SupportTransmission and distribution equipment
                            Development ProjectsIPP renewable energy plants

                            This comprehensive table consolidates updated technical data and current developments in Israel’s energy sector, providing a clear overview for strategic planning and investment opportunities.


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