Mpox Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo


In December 2022, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared a national outbreak of mpox (formerly known as monkeypox), necessitating the implementation of an incident management system by February 2023 due to the rising number of reported cases. The outbreak, which began in South Kivu province, has since spread to North Kivu and other provinces, primarily driven by sexual contact transmission. A novel variant of clade I MPXV, characterized by APOBEC3-type mutations, has been identified in South Kivu, suggesting the virus is adapting to human hosts. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the current mpox situation in the DRC, including epidemiological data, public health response, and regional implications.

Epidemiological Situation

Historical Context and Initial Outbreak

Mpox is an infectious disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV). There are two known clades of MPXV: clade I (Congo Basin clade) and clade II (West Africa clade, which includes subclades IIa and IIb). Historically, mpox has been endemic to certain regions of Africa, with sporadic cases reported outside the continent. However, since 2022, there has been a global surge in mpox cases, particularly affecting countries that had not previously reported the disease. The outbreak in the DRC began in December 2022, initially localized to South Kivu province.

Geographical Spread and Case Statistics

As of May 26, 2024, the DRC has reported a total of 7,851 mpox cases, including 384 deaths, resulting in a case fatality rate (CFR) of 4.9%. These cases have been documented in 177 of the 519 health zones across 22 out of 26 provinces. The provinces most affected in 2024 include Equateur, Sud Ubangi, Sankuru, and South Kivu. The outbreak has exhibited a significant geographical expansion, with sustained community transmission observed in the eastern part of the country, particularly in South Kivu and North Kivu provinces.

Age and Gender Distribution

In 2024, children continue to be the most affected age group, with 39% of reported cases (3,090) occurring in children under five years old, accounting for 62% of the total deaths. Table 1 provides a detailed age distribution of mpox cases and deaths from January to May 2024.

Table 1: Age Distribution of Mpox Cases and Deaths in the DRC (January 1 – May 26, 2024)

Age Group (years)Reported Cases (n, % of total)Deaths (n, % of total)Case Fatality Ratio (%)Crude OR of Death (95% CI)P-value
<1897 (11%)77 (20%)8.63.8 (2.6-5.3)<0.001
1 – 42,193 (28%)163 (42%)7.43.2 (2.4-4.3)<0.001
5 – 152,164 (28%)81 (21%)3.71.6 (1.1-2.2)<0.001
>152,597 (33%)63 (16%)2.41

Laboratory Testing and Diagnostic Challenges

Scabs, vesicles, and blood samples were taken from 1,415 reported cases, with 994 confirmed as positive for MPXV, representing a test positivity rate of 70%. In 2024, the introduction of GeneXpert for field-based PCR diagnostics in key provinces like Equateur and South Kivu has improved the capacity for mpox diagnostics and surveillance. However, cases confirmed by GeneXpert in 2024 are pending inclusion in the national case count due to ongoing test validation exercises.

Public Health Response

Coordination and Surveillance

The Ministry of Health (MoH), supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, has intensified efforts to strengthen surveillance, clinical case management, and laboratory capacities. Surveillance is particularly focused on eight priority provinces identified by the national response plan. Logistics support has been provided for the collection, transportation, and examination of samples from suspected cases, with an emphasis on enhancing testing capacities in provinces like Equateur and South Kivu.

Risk Communication and Community Engagement

Risk communication messages, including information on sexual transmission of mpox, have been developed and translated into local languages. Sensitization campaigns have been initiated in affected communities, particularly in Equateur, Kinshasa, Kwango, South Kivu, and Tshopo provinces. A national behavior change communication plan for mpox has been developed to address public awareness and engagement.

Case Management and Infection Prevention

Immediate isolation of suspected and confirmed cases is recommended to prevent transmission. Clinical care guidelines have been adapted to the context, with severe and critical cases hospitalized in mpox treatment centers, while mild and moderate cases are treated at health centers and posts. The clinical efficacy study of the antiviral tecovirimat continues in two provinces.

Novel Variant and Genomic Sequencing

Identification and Characteristics of the New Variant

A novel variant of clade I MPXV was identified in the Kamituga health zone of South Kivu through genomic sequencing of samples collected between October 2023 and January 2024. This variant carries a deletion of a gene widely used in clade-specific molecular assays and has predominantly APOBEC3-type mutations, indicating adaptation to human hosts. The new variant is associated with sustained human-to-human transmission and has been linked to sexual contact transmission.

Implications and Further Research

All publicly available virus sequences from South Kivu in 2024 identify the strain as the novel variant. However, sequences from other regions, including Equateur, Kinshasa, and Tshopo, do not show APOBEC-3 type mutations. Further sequencing data from across the DRC and the larger Congo Basin area are needed to understand the origins and spread of this novel variant better.

Regional Implications and International Response

Mpox Situation in Neighboring Countries

The spread of mpox in the DRC has raised concerns about cross-border transmission. Verbal reports suggest potential cross-border transmission to Burundi, although no suspected cases have been officially reported. In Cameroon, 23 suspected cases and five confirmed cases have been reported in 2024, with genomic sequencing identifying clade II as the responsible variant. The Republic of the Congo declared a national mpox epidemic in April 2024, with confirmed cases across multiple departments. Rwanda has strengthened surveillance in districts bordering South Kivu, and South Africa has reported five confirmed cases of clade IIb MPXV, all among men aged 35-39.

Public Health Advice and Recommendations

General Recommendations

Health authorities and clinicians globally should be aware of the ongoing mpox outbreak, particularly the new clade I MPXV strain identified in the DRC. WHO advises continued epidemiological surveillance, strengthening of laboratory diagnostic capacities, implementation of risk communication and community engagement strategies, and vaccination for at-risk populations.

Community Engagement and IPC Measures

Effective communication on the risks of sexual transmission is essential, particularly for key populations such as sex workers and men who have sex with men. In healthcare settings, strict infection prevention and control measures should be implemented, including the use of personal protective equipment and adherence to hand hygiene protocols.

The ongoing mpox outbreak in the DRC, characterized by a new variant of clade I MPXV, poses significant public health challenges. The high incidence of cases, sustained community transmission, and geographical expansion underscore the need for a robust and coordinated response. Strengthening surveillance, improving diagnostic capacities, and engaging affected communities are critical to controlling the outbreak and preventing further spread.

A New Framework for Continued Action

The World Health Organization (WHO) has been at the forefront of the global response to mpox, building on its extensive work in public health and disease control. This new strategic framework, which draws from the WHO’s ongoing initiatives and insights, aims to guide the international community in continuing efforts to eliminate human-to-human transmission of mpox. This comprehensive framework includes the expansion of diagnostic and vaccination access, laboratory-based surveillance, and research on therapeutics and vaccines, ensuring that the response to mpox is robust, equitable, and effective.

Table: Defining mpox Control and Elimination Phases and Operational Targets

Level or StatusActionEpidemiological Criteria
Community TransmissionOngoing response– Cases continue for more than 6 weeks following travel-related cases or local outbreaks of unknown origin.<br>- Cases due to human-to-human transmission continue for more than 6 weeks following an outbreak suspected or confirmed to be linked to contact with animals or bushmeat.
– Sporadic or continuing transmission across set geographic areas or population groups without an identified travel-related index case despite thorough case investigations.
– Sporadic or continuing transmission across set geographic areas or population groups without an identified zoonotic source despite thorough case investigations.
Control PhaseReadiness to prevent outbreaks– Travel-related cases or local outbreak stopped within 6 weeks of first confirmation & response (without prior elimination).
– Sporadic cases or outbreaks with an identified or suspected zoonotic source stopped within 6 weeks.
– Suspected cases are investigated, tested, and classified rigorously to confirm, discard, or assign a clinical diagnosis of mpox according to national case definitions.
UnknownReadiness & response– Mpox surveillance not in place or not adequate (e.g., does not include zero-reporting).
– Country or region no longer reporting surveillance data to the next administrative level or from the national level to WHO.
– No cases reported, while confirmed cases elsewhere report travel to the area within the last 21 days.
Elimination of Person-to-Person TransmissionReadiness & response– No cases in the last three months (where previously reported) with adequate surveillance.
– Travel-related case or local outbreak stopped within 6 weeks (where elimination had been achieved).
– Adequate surveillance as defined in this framework.
– All suspected cases are investigated, tested, and classified rigorously to confirm, discard, or assign a non-mpox etiology or diagnosis.
– Countries with high incidence can adapt these criteria to their context for monitoring national and subnational progress towards elimination.
Not AffectedReadiness– No confirmed or clinically compatible cases reported, with zero reporting in place nationally and to WHO.
– No confirmed cases elsewhere report travel from this country or area within the last 21 days.
– All suspected cases are investigated and classified as discarded or as having a non-mpox etiology or diagnosis.
  • Surveillance Systems: Adequate surveillance systems are crucial for identifying and reporting cases, ensuring zero-reporting, and conducting thorough investigations.
  • Response Time: The ability to stop travel-related cases or local outbreaks within 6 weeks is a critical operational target.
  • Case Investigation: Rigorous standards for investigating, testing, and classifying suspected cases are necessary to confirm, discard, or diagnose mpox or other etiologies.
  • Adaptability: Countries with high incidence rates need adaptable criteria to monitor progress towards elimination at both national and subnational levels.

Historical Context and Initial Responses

Since the emergence of mpox as a significant public health concern, the WHO has played a pivotal role in shaping global responses. Early efforts included a global consultation on necessary research, the provision of diagnostic protocols and kits to over 90 countries, the development of a therapeutic trials protocol, and the establishment of a reserve of therapeutics for emergency and compassionate use. These foundational actions set the stage for a coordinated international effort to address the mpox outbreak.

Expansion of Diagnostic and Vaccination Access

The continued expansion of equitable access to diagnostics and vaccines is crucial for achieving and sustaining the elimination of human-to-human mpox transmission. Laboratory-based surveillance is essential for monitoring the epidemiology of the outbreak, characterizing the clinical features of the disease, and supporting the use of clinical case definitions. Sequencing and sharing of viral genomes are critical for understanding the evolution of the virus, monitoring for antiviral-resistant strains, and supporting epidemiological analysis.

Access to vaccines and high-quality clinical care is vital for patient care and the broader goal of elimination. Emerging evidence indicates that mpox vaccines are effective across different MPXV clades. The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) has recommended immunization, and ongoing research is focusing on antiviral therapeutics within the context of clades I and II outbreaks.

WHO Strategic Preparedness and Response

The WHO has issued a Strategic Preparedness, Readiness, and Response Plan (SPRP), operational guidelines, and temporary recommendations to support the global response to mpox. In August 2023, the WHO Director-General issued standing recommendations to all Member States to develop and implement national plans for mpox control and the elimination of person-to-person transmission. This strategic framework is designed to support these actions, aiming to achieve the ambitious yet attainable goal of eliminating human-to-human transmission of mpox.

Integrating Mpox Responses into Broader Health Programs

One of the key strategies outlined in the framework is the integration of mpox responses into broader health programs. This approach includes strengthening primary care and essential clinical services, focusing efforts where needed, and leveraging existing health infrastructures to facilitate long-term responses without requiring standalone programs. In some settings, mpox case detection, prevention, treatment, and reporting can be integrated into HIV/STI, primary care, or other health services.

Addressing Varied Epidemiological Contexts

Since the onset of the global outbreak in 2022, mpox has demonstrated the potential to occur in any location, with countries experiencing varied epidemiological contexts. To support the implementation of the framework, five broadly schematic epidemiological contexts have been described:

  • Context A: Areas reporting sporadic cases or sustained community transmission primarily linked to sexual networks (e.g., Europe, the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific).
  • Context B: Areas with mixed modes of human-to-human transmission (sexual and nonsexual), affecting men, women, and children (e.g., urban or peri-urban areas in West and Central Africa).
  • Context C: Areas with mixed modes of transmission (human-to-human and animal-to-human), primarily affecting children and young adults in rural areas (e.g., endemic areas of East and Central Africa).
  • Context D: Areas where the situation is unclear due to lack of surveillance or conflicting information.
  • Context E: Areas with no reported cases and no credible reports of cases linked to travel or other means.

These contexts provide a starting point for detailed planning and action, using common terminology to assess regional and global conditions. Countries and regions are encouraged to anticipate shifts in context as epidemiological situations evolve.

Defining Mpox Outbreaks, Community Transmission, Control, and Elimination

The framework provides clear definitions to support regional, country, and subnational planning and action:

  • Suspected Outbreak: One or more suspected or probable cases in a defined geographic area.
  • Confirmed Outbreak: Two or more laboratory-confirmed or epidemiologically linked cases in a defined area.
  • Community Transmission: Continued occurrence of new cases spread via human-to-human contact for ≥ six weeks following the first reported case.
  • Control: Absence of new cases beyond six weeks after the last reported case in an outbreak.
  • Elimination: Absence of new local cases for ≥ three months in the presence of adequate surveillance.

These definitions support harmonized communication, collaborative surveillance, and tracking of progress, ensuring a cohesive and effective global response.

Challenges and Future Directions

Despite the progress made, significant challenges remain in achieving the elimination of human-to-human mpox transmission. Varied epidemiological contexts, limited resources, and competing health priorities require continued global commitment and innovative solutions. The framework emphasizes the importance of ethical, rights-based responses, integration with other health programs, and partnership with affected communities to strengthen the response and reduce stigma.

Research and innovation continue to play a critical role in addressing these challenges. Ongoing studies on antiviral therapeutics, vaccine effectiveness, and the ecological dynamics of MPXV are essential to inform public health strategies and improve outcomes. The ability to distinguish between viral clades through diagnostic methods and sequencing remains crucial for monitoring epidemiologic patterns, transmission modes, and the effectiveness of countermeasures.

The WHO’s new framework for continued action against mpox represents a comprehensive, context-sensitive approach to eliminating human-to-human transmission. By building on past efforts, expanding access to diagnostics and vaccines, integrating responses into broader health programs, and addressing varied epidemiological contexts, the framework provides a robust foundation for achieving global health goals. Continued research, innovation, and international collaboration are essential to overcoming challenges and ensuring a sustainable and effective response to mpox.

In summary, this strategic framework outlines a path forward for global efforts to eliminate human-to-human mpox transmission. It emphasizes the need for equitable access to healthcare, robust surveillance, and integration with broader health programs. By leveraging these strategies and maintaining a focus on ethical, rights-based responses, the international community can work together to achieve the ambitious goal of mpox elimination.

APPENDIX 1 – Detailed Report on the New Mpox Variant in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Between January 1 and June 2, 2024, the South Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) reported 777 cases of mpox (formerly known as monkeypox). Following laboratory testing of samples from 426 out of these 777 cases (55%), 373 cases were confirmed as positive, resulting in a test positivity rate of 88%. Among these confirmed cases, there were seven deaths, giving a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1.8% among confirmed cases. The mpox cluster in South Kivu, initially detected in the Kamituga Health Zone, has expanded geographically, with 19 out of 34 health zones (56%) reporting at least one mpox case.

This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the new variant of clade I MPXV identified in South Kivu, including its epidemiological characteristics, genomic features, transmission dynamics, and public health implications. Additionally, a detailed table summarizing key data points is included to facilitate understanding of the outbreak.

Epidemiological Characteristics

Case Distribution and Demographics

The mpox outbreak in South Kivu has shown a significant geographical expansion. The initial cluster detected in the Kamituga Health Zone was driven by sexual contact transmission. As of June 2, 2024, the outbreak has spread to 19 out of 34 health zones in the province. The types of contact reported by cases include sexual contact, non-sexual direct contact, and household and healthcare facility contact. Importantly, no cases with suspected zoonotic transmission have been reported in the province since the start of the outbreak.

The majority of laboratory-confirmed cases in South Kivu are among persons aged over 15 years. Among those with available age and sex data, the sex distribution is nearly equal, with 51% female and 49% male. This indicates that the virus is affecting both genders almost equally and is spreading predominantly through human-to-human contact rather than animal-to-human transmission.

Genomic Sequencing and Novel Variant Identification

Through genomic sequencing of MPXV samples collected between October 2023 and January 2024, a novel variant of clade I MPXV was identified in the Kamituga health zone. This variant carries a deletion of a gene that widely serves as a target for clade-specific molecular assays. This deletion was confirmed by the national reference laboratory, the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB), as well as other academic and public health institutes.

The new variant was found to have predominantly APOBEC3-type mutations, indicating adaptation of the virus due to circulation among humans. It was estimated to have emerged around mid-September 2023, with sequence data suggesting sustained human-to-human transmission since then. It is not yet known if this variant is more transmissible or leads to more severe disease than other virus strains circulating in the country.

Transmission Dynamics

The transmission dynamics of the new mpox variant in South Kivu are primarily characterized by human-to-human transmission through close contact, particularly sexual contact. The expansion of the outbreak to multiple health zones highlights the effectiveness of this mode of transmission. Given the lack of zoonotic transmission, the outbreak in South Kivu represents a significant shift in the epidemiology of mpox in the region.

Public Health Response and Implications

Surveillance and Laboratory Testing

The high test positivity rate of 88% among tested cases indicates a robust surveillance and laboratory testing system in place. However, the relatively low percentage of cases tested (55%) suggests that there may be undetected cases in the community. Strengthening surveillance and expanding testing capacity are crucial to controlling the outbreak.

Public Health Interventions

To mitigate the spread of the new variant, public health interventions should focus on:

  • Enhancing Surveillance: Increasing the coverage and frequency of testing to ensure timely detection and isolation of cases.
  • Community Engagement: Educating the public about the modes of transmission and preventive measures, particularly focusing on high-risk groups such as individuals with multiple sexual partners.
  • Healthcare Facility Preparedness: Ensuring that healthcare facilities are equipped to handle the influx of mpox cases and prevent nosocomial transmission.
  • Contact Tracing and Isolation: Implementing rigorous contact tracing and isolation protocols to break the chain of transmission.

Research and Genomic Surveillance

Further research is needed to understand the origins and spread of the novel variant. Additional sequencing data from across the DRC and the larger Congo Basin area are required to determine whether the variant evolved in South Kivu or other under-sampled regions. Continuous genomic surveillance will be essential to monitor the evolution of the virus and guide public health responses.

Detailed Data Table

The following table summarizes the key epidemiological and genomic data for the mpox outbreak in South Kivu:

Reporting PeriodJanuary 1 – June 2, 2024
Total Reported Cases777
Laboratory Tested Cases426 (55%)
Confirmed Positive Cases373
Test Positivity Rate88%
Confirmed Deaths7
Case Fatality Rate (CFR)1.8%
Geographical Spread19 out of 34 health zones (56%)
Types of ContactSexual contact, non-sexual direct contact, household contact, healthcare facility contact
Suspected Zoonotic TransmissionNone reported
Age Distribution of Confirmed CasesPredominantly >15 years
Sex Distribution of Confirmed Cases51% female, 49% male
Novel Variant IdentificationYes, in Kamituga health zone
Genomic Characteristics of Novel VariantDeletion of a gene used in clade-specific assays, APOBEC3-type mutations
Estimated Emergence of Novel VariantMid-September 2023
Sustained Human-to-Human TransmissionYes, since mid-September 2023
Other Publicly Available SequencesNo APOBEC-3 type mutations in sequences from Equateur, Kinshasa, Tshopo
Further Research NeedsAdditional sequencing data from across DRC and larger Congo Basin area
Public Health Response FocusEnhanced surveillance, community engagement, healthcare facility preparedness, contact tracing and isolation, research and genomic surveillance

The emergence of a novel variant of clade I MPXV in South Kivu, characterized by APOBEC3-type mutations and sustained human-to-human transmission, represents a significant public health challenge. The high test positivity rate and the spread to multiple health zones underscore the need for a robust and coordinated response. Public health interventions should focus on enhancing surveillance, engaging the community, preparing healthcare facilities, and implementing rigorous contact tracing and isolation protocols. Further research and continuous genomic surveillance are essential to understand the evolution of the virus and guide effective public health strategies.

APPENDIX 2 – Box 5. Evidence for Mpox Vaccine Effectiveness

The World Health Organization (WHO) issued standing recommendations on mpox in August 2023, advising States Parties to make mpox vaccines available for both primary prevention (pre-exposure) and post-exposure vaccination for persons and communities at risk. These recommendations were made considering the advice of the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) . This article delves into the historical context, current vaccine options, clinical evidence on vaccine effectiveness, and ongoing research and development efforts regarding mpox vaccines.

Historical Context of Mpox Vaccination

In the early 1980s, a study conducted in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) demonstrated that smallpox vaccination was 80-85% effective in protecting against mpox linked to clade I of the monkeypox virus (MPXV). Smallpox and mpox vaccines share a common component: the live vaccinia virus, which is another orthopoxvirus. This cross-protection feature underpins the use of smallpox vaccines in mpox prevention .

Current Vaccination Options

The primary vaccines deployed in response to the global mpox outbreak are MVA-BN and LC16-KMB. These vaccines are based on live vaccinia viruses but are designed to be safer through attenuation processes.

MVA-BN (Modified Vaccinia Ankara – Bavarian Nordic):

  • Composition: Non-replicating live vaccinia virus vaccine consisting of a modified Ankara strain of vaccinia.
  • Administration: Requires two doses.
  • Approval: Approved for use in adults.
  • Purpose: Developed to improve vaccine safety profiles and initially intended for smallpox preparedness.


  • Composition: Minimally-replicating live vaccinia virus vaccine derived from the Lister strain of vaccinia.
  • Administration: Single-dose vaccine.
  • Approval: Approved for use in both adults and children.
  • Purpose: Similar to MVA-BN, developed to enhance safety while providing effective protection against orthopoxviruses.

Clinical Evidence on Vaccine Effectiveness

The effectiveness of these vaccines has been the subject of various studies, especially during the global mpox outbreak. Key findings include:


  • Effectiveness: Data from published studies indicate an estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 66% to 90% for the two-dose regimen.
  • WHO Meta-Analysis:
    • Single Dose (Pre-Exposure): 74% VE based on 13 studies.
    • Two Doses (Pre-Exposure): 82% VE based on 6 studies.
    • Single Dose (Post-Exposure): 20% VE regardless of the time between exposure and vaccination, based on 7 studies .


  • Ongoing Studies: Vaccine effectiveness studies for LC16-KMB are currently underway.

Safety Profile

Both MVA-BN and LC16-KMB have demonstrated a good safety profile. However, the LC16-KMB vaccine is contraindicated in individuals with severe immune deficiencies or those undergoing medical treatments that result in immune suppression.

Future Developments

In addition to the existing vaccinia-based vaccines, other platforms for mpox vaccines are in development, including mRNA and protein subunit vaccines. These new platforms hold promise for enhanced safety and efficacy profiles, potentially expanding the available options for mpox prevention.

Detailed Analysis and Timeline of Events

Early Evidence and Smallpox Vaccination (1980s)

  • 1980s: Smallpox vaccination in Zaire showed 80-85% effectiveness against mpox.
  • 1980: The WHO declared smallpox eradicated, but the vaccination’s cross-protection against mpox highlighted the continued relevance of orthopoxvirus vaccines.

Development of MVA-BN and LC16-KMB

  • 1990s-2000s: Development of MVA-BN and LC16-KMB focused on improving safety profiles while maintaining efficacy against orthopoxviruses.
  • 2000s: Clinical trials and regulatory approvals for smallpox preparedness.
  • 2022-2023: Deployment of these vaccines during the global mpox outbreak.

WHO Recommendations and Clinical Evidence (2023)

  • August 2023: WHO recommended the availability of mpox vaccines for at-risk populations, supported by SAGE.
  • 2023: Publication and meta-analysis of clinical studies on MVA-BN, highlighting effectiveness rates and safety profiles.

Ongoing Research and Future Directions

  • 2024: Continued studies on LC16-KMB’s effectiveness.
  • 2024 onwards: Development of mRNA and protein subunit vaccines, aiming to enhance the prevention toolkit for mpox and other orthopoxvirus-related diseases.

Analytical Details and Numerical Explanations

Vaccine Effectiveness Metrics

  • Effectiveness Range (MVA-BN): 66% to 90% for two doses, highlighting variability based on population and study conditions.
  • Single Dose Pre-Exposure (MVA-BN): 74% effectiveness, demonstrating substantial protection from a single dose before exposure.
  • Two Doses Pre-Exposure (MVA-BN): 82% effectiveness, indicating higher protection with the complete regimen.
  • Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (MVA-BN): 20% effectiveness, underscoring the reduced efficacy when administered after exposure.

Safety Profile

  • General Safety: Both vaccines have shown favorable safety profiles in clinical trials and real-world use.
  • Contraindications: Specific to LC16-KMB, with severe immune deficiency or immune-suppressive treatments being a critical consideration for its use.

The evidence for the effectiveness of mpox vaccines, particularly MVA-BN and LC16-KMB, underscores their critical role in the global health response to mpox. Historical data, clinical trials, and ongoing research collectively support the use of these vaccines in preventing mpox among at-risk populations. Continued development of new vaccine platforms promises to further strengthen the arsenal against mpox and similar diseases, ensuring robust public health preparedness and response.

By providing detailed insights and numerical explanations, this article aims to highlight the comprehensive efforts and scientific evidence underpinning the effectiveness of mpox vaccines, contributing to informed decision-making and public health strategies.

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