Drones in Modern Warfare: Technological Evolution and Strategic Implications

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The ongoing conflicts in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Middle East have brought to the forefront the transformative role of drones in contemporary warfare. The deployment of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has evolved from their initial use in the US-led wars in Iraq and Afghanistan to their current strategic applications in highly contested airspaces. The Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) drones, exemplified by the MQ-9 Reaper, initially gained notoriety for their capacity to perform prolonged reconnaissance missions and execute rapid strike operations in hybrid and asymmetric warfare settings. However, the dynamic nature of modern conflicts, characterized by advanced counter-drone technologies, has necessitated significant adaptations in UAS strategies and deployments.

Evolution of Drone Warfare

Initial Deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan

The deployment of MALE drones like the MQ-9 Reaper in Iraq and Afghanistan marked a significant milestone in military aviation. These drones provided the US military with unparalleled capabilities in terms of surveillance, reconnaissance, and targeted strikes. Their ability to loiter over target areas for extended periods allowed for continuous monitoring and rapid response to emerging threats. This capability was particularly valuable in the asymmetric warfare environment of Iraq and Afghanistan, where insurgent tactics required persistent surveillance and precise engagement to mitigate collateral damage.

However, the initial success of these drones was largely attributed to the uncontested airspace in which they operated. The absence of sophisticated air defense systems in these regions allowed MALE drones to operate with relative impunity, maximizing their strategic advantages. This environment fostered the development of advanced drone technologies and operational doctrines that emphasized the integration of real-time intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities with precision strike capabilities.

Transition to Contested Airspaces

As drone technology proliferated and adversaries developed countermeasures, the operational environment for MALE drones became increasingly challenging. The emergence of radar-guided anti-aircraft systems, such as the Iranian-made Sayyad-2 surface-to-air missile (SAM), and optically guided missile systems like the Iranian Saqr Type 358 UAS interceptor, underscored the vulnerabilities of large, slow-moving drones in contested airspaces. These systems, which have been effectively used against US and Israeli drones over Yemen and Lebanon, highlighted the need for more survivable and adaptable UAS platforms.

In response to these challenges, military forces have shifted their focus towards smaller, more agile tactical UAS that can evade sophisticated air defense systems. The Russian Z-16 and various one-way attack (OWA) drones have demonstrated the ability to conduct effective missions in high-threat environments. These smaller drones, often used in swarms, can overwhelm air defenses and provide persistent ISR capabilities despite the presence of advanced SAM systems.

Drone Usage in Recent Conflicts

The Ukraine War

The conflict in Ukraine has served as a testing ground for the latest advancements in drone technology and counter-UAS measures. In this highly contested environment, traditional MALE drones have struggled to survive, prompting a shift towards more resilient and cost-effective tactical UAS. The widespread use of FPV (first-person view) drones by Ukrainian forces to intercept fixed-wing surveillance drones exemplifies this trend. These FPV drones, which act as ‘hit to kill’ interceptors, have proven effective in neutralizing enemy drones by ramming them in mid-air.

Additionally, various counter-drone systems employing nets, traps, and nylon strips have been deployed to disable multirotor drones. These innovative solutions highlight the evolving nature of drone warfare, where both sides continuously adapt their tactics and technologies to gain an edge on the battlefield. The Ukrainian experience has underscored the importance of integrating diverse counter-UAS strategies to address the multifaceted threats posed by enemy drones.

The Middle East Theater

In the Middle East, the use of OWA drones has become pervasive among all conflict participants. Iran’s proxy group, Hezbollah, has leveraged these drones to launch attacks from mountainous regions in South Lebanon and the Galilee, exploiting the terrain’s challenges for detection and interception. These drones have been used to blind Israeli surveillance systems, complicating efforts to counter subsequent attacks. Initially slow to respond, Israel has since developed effective countermeasures to mitigate the threat posed by these suicide drones.

The unique operational environment in the Middle East, characterized by diverse terrain and complex urban areas, has necessitated the deployment of advanced detection and interception systems. Electro-optical (EO) and infrared (IR) detection systems, augmented by artificial intelligence (AI) processing, have become crucial for identifying and tracking drones. These systems rely on deep learning algorithms to analyze a combination of signals, such as shape, rotation, and motion patterns, to accurately classify and engage drone targets.

Challenges in Countering OWA Drones

The rapid proliferation of OWA drones presents significant challenges for traditional air defense systems. These drones operate autonomously or semi-autonomously, making them difficult to detect and engage. Their small size and high maneuverability further complicate detection efforts, particularly in cluttered or rugged environments.

Detection and Early Warning Systems

Effective detection and early warning systems are essential for countering the threat posed by OWA drones. Radars, while effective in open terrain, face limitations in urban and mountainous areas. To address these gaps, military forces have integrated EO and IR sensors with deep learning and neural network processing to enhance detection capabilities. Systems like Controp’s I-TACT product line exemplify this approach, providing comprehensive EO/IR solutions for mobile, deployable, and fixed C-UAS applications. These systems offer passive scanning, classification, and tracking of drones at various ranges, improving situational awareness and response times.

Electro-Optical and Infrared Detection Systems

EO and IR systems play a critical role in counter-UAS operations, particularly when engaging high-flying, fixed-wing drones detectable by radar but requiring tracking assistance from other sensors. Controp’s I-TACT systems are optimized for spotting and tracking low-signature targets, offering enhanced image processing capabilities for improved target recognition and automatic flight path prediction. This integration of advanced imaging and AI processing enables more effective UAS detection and engagement in diverse operational environments.

Third Eye Systems’ TESSERACT aEYE deep learning neural network algorithm further enhances the capabilities of EO/IR imagers by providing AI-based analytic processing for drone detection, recognition, and tracking. The vEYE system, employed on manned and unmanned ground vehicles, improves situational awareness and enables more effective counter-UAS operations. The integration of these advanced technologies has been instrumental in recent conflicts, allowing military forces to gain valuable experience in drone detection and engagement.

Counter-UAS Systems

Counter-UAS missions can be executed through electronic warfare (EW) measures, known as ‘soft kill,’ or kinetic means, referred to as ‘hard kill.’ Soft kill systems typically employ jamming or spoofing techniques to disrupt the drone’s navigation and control systems, while hard kill methods involve physically intercepting or destroying the drone.

Soft-Kill EW Solutions

Soft-kill EW solutions are designed to neutralize drones without causing physical damage, making them suitable for engagements in civilian areas or where collateral damage must be minimized. These systems use rapid electronic scanning to identify the drone’s operating frequencies and electronic signature, enabling targeted jamming or spoofing attacks.

Israel’s C-UAS specialist D-Fend offers the EnforceAir 2 C system, which can be configured for various deployment scenarios, including backpack, vehicular, or mast-mounted setups. The system’s Cyber SDR hardware, equipped with multiple receivers for real-time scanning and processing, uses advanced RF Cyber technology to deliver effective jamming and spoofing capabilities. This approach allows for flexible and scalable C-UAS solutions that can adapt to evolving threats.

Sentrics provides integrated RF-Cyber C-UAS solutions capable of detecting multiple targets simultaneously, even in environments with GPS spoofing or jamming. The system monitors each drone’s position and heading, providing valuable intelligence on the drone’s origin and control. For mitigation, the system employs jamming to disconnect the drone from its controller, ensuring a safe and controlled landing. These advanced RF-based solutions offer significant advantages in complex urban areas and RF-saturated environments.

Tactical Solutions for Front-line Units

Front-line units often face immediate threats from suicide drones and improvised FPV drones, requiring rapid and effective countermeasures. Tactical units cannot rely solely on specialized air-defense assets and must have access to tools that enable self-defense against drone attacks.

SMASH Weapon Sight

The SMASH weapon sight, developed by Smartshooter, provides front-line units with an effective counter-drone capability. Mounted on rifles, machine guns, or remote weapon stations, the SMASH system leverages AI, computer vision, and advanced algorithms to identify, track, and engage drone targets. The system synchronizes the shot release with the correct ballistics, ensuring an accurate hit and neutralizing the threat posed by incoming drones.

Non-Lethal Countermeasures for Drones

Non-lethal countermeasures for drones are crucial in civilian environments where minimizing collateral damage is a priority. These technologies aim to disable or capture drones without causing destruction or harm. Below is a detailed exploration of the most advanced non-lethal counter-drone technologies and solutions currently available worldwide.

Drone Jammers and RF Interference

DroneShield

  • Technology: DroneShield provides several RF jamming devices, such as the DroneGun, which can disrupt the communication between the drone and its operator, forcing it to land or return to its base.
  • Capabilities: Effective against various types of drones, including GPS and GLONASS navigation systems.
  • Deployment: Used in public safety, military operations, and protection of critical infrastructure.

Battelle DroneDefender

  • Technology: A handheld counter-UAS device that disrupts drone control signals using radio frequency interference.
  • Capabilities: Forces drones to land safely or return to their point of origin.
  • Deployment: Widely used by law enforcement and military personnel in the U.S.

Drone Capture Technologies

SkyWall 100

  • Technology: A handheld net launcher that captures drones in a net and brings them safely to the ground.
  • Capabilities: Effective against various drone sizes, with a high success rate in capturing without damage.
  • Deployment: Used in urban environments, public events, and critical infrastructure protection.

MyDefence Wingman

  • Technology: A portable drone mitigation system that uses RF disruption and net capture methods.
  • Capabilities: Can be deployed quickly and is effective in capturing multiple drones.
  • Deployment: Suitable for use in crowded areas and during public events.

Drone Detection and Neutralization Systems

Dedrone

  • Technology: Provides an airspace security platform that detects, classifies, and mitigates drone threats using RF sensors, cameras, and radar.
  • Capabilities: Integrates with non-lethal neutralization options such as jammers and capture systems.
  • Deployment: Used for protecting critical infrastructure, prisons, airports, and government buildings.

AUDS (Anti-UAV Defence System)

  • Technology: A multi-sensor, multi-effector system that includes radar, EO/IR cameras, and RF jamming.
  • Capabilities: Detects, tracks, identifies, and disrupts drones with minimal collateral damage.
  • Deployment: Utilized by military and security agencies worldwide.

Laser-Based Systems

Rafael Drone Dome

  • Technology: Incorporates laser technology to disable drones without causing an explosion.
  • Capabilities: Effective at neutralizing drones at various distances and can operate in all weather conditions.
  • Deployment: Used by military and security forces to protect high-value assets and events.

Boeing Compact Laser Weapon System

  • Technology: Uses directed energy to disable drones.
  • Capabilities: Precise targeting reduces the risk of collateral damage.
  • Deployment: Deployed in various military and security operations.

Acoustic and Visual Disruption

Ultrasonic Disruptors

  • Technology: Devices that emit high-frequency sound waves to interfere with drone sensors and navigation.
  • Capabilities: Non-destructive and effective at short ranges.
  • Deployment: Used in urban settings to prevent drone surveillance and unauthorized access.

Dazzlers and Flashing Lights

  • Technology: High-intensity light sources that disorient drone cameras and sensors.
  • Capabilities: Effective at blinding drone optics and preventing data collection.
  • Deployment: Suitable for protecting privacy and sensitive areas from aerial surveillance.

Detailed Table of Advanced Non-Lethal Counter-Drone Technologies

Product/SystemManufacturerTechnologyCapabilitiesDeployment
DroneGunDroneShieldRF JammingDisrupts drone communication, forces landingPublic safety, military, infrastructure
DroneDefenderBattelleRF InterferenceDisrupts control signals, forces safe landingLaw enforcement, military
SkyWall 100OpenWorks EngineeringNet LauncherCaptures drones in a netUrban environments, public events
WingmanMyDefenceRF Disruption, Net CaptureCaptures multiple dronesCrowded areas, public events
DedroneDedroneRF Sensors, Cameras, RadarDetects, classifies, mitigates drone threatsCritical infrastructure, prisons, airports
AUDSBlighter, Chess, EnterpriseRadar, EO/IR Cameras, RF JammingDetects, tracks, identifies, disrupts dronesMilitary, security agencies
Drone DomeRafaelLaser TechnologyDisables drones with directed energyHigh-value assets, events
Compact Laser Weapon SystemBoeingDirected EnergyPrecise targeting, minimal collateral damageMilitary, security operations
Ultrasonic DisruptorsMultipleHigh-frequency sound wavesInterferes with drone sensors and navigationUrban settings
DazzlersMultipleHigh-intensity lightsDisorients drone cameras and sensorsPrivacy protection, sensitive areas

Non-lethal countermeasures for drones offer essential solutions for safeguarding civilian areas and minimizing collateral damage. By employing advanced technologies such as RF jamming, net capture, laser systems, and acoustic disruptions, these solutions provide effective methods for neutralizing drone threats without destructive force. Continued innovation and deployment of these technologies are crucial for maintaining security and public safety in an increasingly drone-populated world.

Goshawk C-UAS Vehicle

The Goshawk C-UAS vehicle, developed by Robotican, is designed to capture quadcopters and other small drones using an arresting net. The six-rotor vehicle can be deployed to augment the security system of strategic sites, providing an autonomous solution for drone interception. Once a drone is detected, the Goshawk is scrambled to intercept it, using its in-flight target detection, tracking, lock, and seek capabilities to capture the drone safely.

Future Trends and Strategic Implications

The continuous evolution of drone technology and counter-UAS systems will shape the future of modern warfare. As adversaries develop more sophisticated drones and countermeasures, military forces must adapt their strategies and technologies to maintain a strategic advantage.

Advancements in AI and Autonomous Systems

The integration of AI and autonomous systems will play a crucial role in future drone warfare. AI-driven analytics will enhance detection and engagement capabilities, allowing for more effective identification and neutralization of drone threats. Autonomous systems will enable more efficient and scalable counter-UAS solutions, reducing the reliance on human operators and increasing the speed and accuracy of responses.

Swarm Tactics and Countermeasures: A Comprehensive Analysis

Swarm tactics involve the use of multiple drones operating in a coordinated manner to overwhelm defenses. This concept is increasingly relevant in modern warfare, with both state and non-state actors investing in swarm capabilities. The rapid proliferation of drone technology necessitates advanced countermeasures to mitigate the risks posed by these swarms. This document provides a detailed exploration of swarm tactics and the countermeasures required to address this evolving threat, updated with the latest data and technological advancements as of June 2024.

Evolution of Swarm Tactics

Swarm tactics are not entirely new, drawing on historical precedents such as WWII bomber raids and naval “wolfpack” tactics. However, the advent of autonomous systems and artificial intelligence (AI) has significantly advanced the capabilities of drone swarms. Modern drone swarms can perform complex maneuvers, engage in coordinated attacks, and adapt to changing battlefield conditions without direct human intervention.

Technological Advancements

Recent developments in AI and machine learning have enhanced the autonomy of drone swarms. The US Air Force’s Collaborative Combat Aircraft (CCA) program, for instance, involves sophisticated drones like the Kratos XQ-58 Valkyrie, designed to support manned aircraft in combat scenarios. These drones are equipped with advanced sensors, AI-driven navigation systems, and can execute preprogrammed tactical behaviors autonomously​ ​.

Proliferation and Accessibility

The proliferation of drone technology has made swarm capabilities accessible to a wide range of actors. Commercially available drones, such as those produced by Geoscan and Elbit Systems, provide baseline swarm capabilities suitable for various applications, from environmental monitoring to military operations​ ​. However, the complexity and cost of advanced swarms, incorporating stealth technology and sophisticated AI, limit their widespread adoption​.

Operational Scenarios

Maritime Swarms

Maritime environments pose unique challenges for countering drone swarms. Recent engagements in the Red Sea have demonstrated the effectiveness of Western naval forces against such threats. For example, the US and NATO navies have successfully neutralized swarms by employing integrated detection and engagement systems​.

Land-Based Swarms

On land, drone swarms have been employed in various conflicts, notably in Ukraine, where both state and non-state actors have used them to conduct reconnaissance, target acquisition, and direct attacks. The adaptability and scalability of swarms make them particularly effective in contested environments​.

Countermeasures

Effective countermeasures against drone swarms require a multi-layered approach, integrating kinetic and non-kinetic solutions. The following sections outline the primary countermeasures currently being developed and deployed.

Kinetic Countermeasures

  • Anti-Aircraft Systems: Traditional anti-aircraft weapons have been adapted to target drones. However, their effectiveness against smaller, faster, and more numerous drone swarms is limited​.
  • Directed Energy Weapons: Lasers and microwave weapons offer a promising solution by disabling drones’ electronic systems without the need for physical destruction. These systems can engage multiple targets rapidly, making them ideal for countering swarms​ ​.
  • Net-Capture Systems: These systems deploy nets to physically capture drones, neutralizing them without causing collateral damage. They are particularly useful in urban environments where minimizing damage is crucial​.

Non-Kinetic Countermeasures

  • Electronic Warfare (EW): EW techniques, such as jamming and spoofing, can disrupt the communication and navigation systems of drones, rendering them ineffective. Advanced EW systems can target multiple drones simultaneously, providing a robust defense against swarms​ .
  • Cyber Warfare: Hacking into drone control systems allows defenders to disable or even take control of enemy drones. This approach requires sophisticated cyber capabilities and real-time intelligence​ ​.
  • Geo-Fencing: Creating virtual boundaries that drones cannot cross provides a proactive measure to protect sensitive areas. This method is effective but requires precise geolocation technology and robust enforcement mechanisms​ ​.

Future Developments

The future of swarm tactics and countermeasures will be shaped by ongoing advancements in AI, machine learning, and sensor technologies. Integrated systems that combine multiple countermeasures, enhanced by real-time data analytics and AI-driven decision-making, will offer the most comprehensive defense against swarm threats.

AI and Machine Learning

AI and machine learning will play a critical role in both swarm operations and countermeasures. Advanced algorithms can optimize swarm behaviors, improving their effectiveness in dynamic environments. Similarly, AI-driven analytics can enhance detection and response times, enabling more efficient and effective counter-swarm strategies​ ​.

Ethical and Operational Considerations

The deployment of autonomous systems and advanced countermeasures raises significant ethical and operational questions. Ensuring compliance with international laws and minimizing collateral damage will be crucial as these technologies continue to evolve. Furthermore, the integration of AI in decision-making processes must be carefully managed to prevent unintended consequences and maintain human oversight​​.

Swarm tactics represent a significant evolution in modern warfare, offering new capabilities and challenges. Countering these threats requires a comprehensive approach, integrating advanced detection, engagement, and mitigation systems. As technology continues to advance, so too must our strategies and capabilities to ensure effective defense against the evolving threat of drone swarms.

By leveraging the latest developments in AI, machine learning, and sensor technologies, and maintaining a proactive stance on ethical and operational considerations, military forces can develop robust countermeasures to protect against the growing threat of drone swarms.

This document provides a foundation for understanding the complexities of swarm tactics and the countermeasures required to address them. Continued research and development in this field will be essential to maintaining a strategic advantage in the face of rapidly evolving threats.

Integration of Cyber and Electronic Warfare in Counter-UAS Operations

The rapid proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) presents a significant challenge to modern military operations. These systems, ranging from small commercial drones to sophisticated military-grade unmanned aircraft, have been utilized extensively in reconnaissance, surveillance, and attack roles. The integration of cyber and electronic warfare (EW) capabilities into counter-UAS (C-UAS) operations is crucial to effectively countering these threats. By combining these technologies, military forces can disrupt the command and control infrastructure of enemy drones, jam or spoof their navigation and control systems, and provide a layered defense mechanism. This document explores the latest developments, strategies, and technologies in the integration of cyber and electronic warfare for counter-UAS operations, drawing on the most recent data and projections.

The Evolving UAS Threat Landscape

The threat posed by UAS has evolved significantly over recent years, driven by advances in drone technology and their increasing accessibility. The conflict in Ukraine has highlighted the strategic importance of drones, with thousands of drones being deployed for various missions. According to the Royal United Services Institute, Ukraine is losing approximately 10,000 drones per month while defending against Russian forces. This high attrition rate underscores the need for effective countermeasures​ ​.

Types of UAS Threats

  • Commercial Drones: Easily accessible and modifiable for various purposes, including surveillance and light attack.
  • Military-Grade Drones: Equipped with advanced sensors and weaponry, capable of long-range and high-endurance missions.
  • Swarm Drones: Coordinated groups of drones that can overwhelm defenses through sheer numbers and simultaneous attacks.

Cyber Warfare in Counter-UAS Operations

Cyber warfare capabilities offer unique advantages in countering UAS threats by targeting their digital infrastructure. This approach includes disrupting the communication links between drones and their operators, hacking into drone control systems, and deploying malware to disable or reroute drones.

Key Cyber Techniques

  • Command and Control Disruption: Attacking the network infrastructure to sever the communication between the UAS and its operator.
  • GPS Spoofing: Providing false GPS signals to mislead the drone about its location, causing it to deviate from its intended path or crash.
  • Malware Deployment: Infecting the drone’s onboard systems with malware that can disable its functions or take control of its operations.

Recent advancements have seen the rapid development of cyber-enabled C-UAS systems. For instance, the U.S. Army’s Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO) developed a new cyber C-UAS prototype that was delivered in record time to operational units, providing critical feedback for further improvements​.

Electronic Warfare in Counter-UAS Operations

Electronic warfare complements cyber capabilities by focusing on the electromagnetic spectrum to detect, jam, and spoof UAS. EW systems can disrupt the radio frequency (RF) signals that drones rely on for navigation and control.

Key EW Techniques

  • RF Jamming: Broadcasting noise or signals on the same frequency as the drone’s communication system to disrupt its control link.
  • High-Power Microwaves (HPM): Using electromagnetic pulses to disable the drone’s electronic components.
  • Laser Systems: High-energy lasers that can physically damage or destroy drones.

The Pentagon’s counter-drone office has been actively demonstrating and integrating these technologies. The focus has shifted towards neutralizing drone swarms using a combination of EW capabilities and kinetic interceptors. The office’s recent demonstrations have included the use of high-powered microwaves and electronic warfare systems to counter UAS threats effectively​​.

Layered Defense Approach

A layered defense strategy is essential for effectively countering the diverse range of UAS threats. This approach integrates multiple technologies and tactics to provide comprehensive protection.

Components of a Layered Defense

  • Detection and Tracking: Utilizing radars, RF sensors, electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensors, and acoustic detectors to identify and track UAS.
  • Electronic and Cyber Countermeasures: Implementing EW and cyber techniques to disrupt, disable, or take control of drones.
  • Kinetic Interceptors: Deploying physical interceptors such as missiles, guns, and advanced ammunition to destroy drones.

The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) is enhancing the effectiveness of these systems. AI can analyze data from various sensors to provide high-fidelity tracking and inform decision-making processes. For example, the Liteye SHIELD system employs AI-based RF detection and automated video tracking to counter UAS threats​​.

Future Developments and Projections

The integration of cyber and electronic warfare in counter-UAS operations is an evolving field with significant ongoing research and development. The future will likely see more sophisticated and scalable solutions that can adapt to emerging threats.

Anticipated Advancements

  • Enhanced AI and ML Integration: Further integration of AI and ML to improve detection, tracking, and response times.
  • Scalable Cyber Solutions: Development of scalable cyber warfare tools that can be rapidly deployed and adapted to various threat environments.
  • Advanced EW Systems: Continued refinement of EW systems to increase their range, precision, and effectiveness against a broader spectrum of UAS.

Strategic Implications

The increasing use of drones in military conflicts necessitates a robust and dynamic approach to counter-UAS operations. Integrating cyber and electronic warfare capabilities will be crucial in maintaining a technological edge over adversaries. This integration will not only enhance the effectiveness of current countermeasures but also provide a foundation for developing next-generation defense systems.

The integration of cyber and electronic warfare capabilities represents a critical evolution in counter-UAS operations. By leveraging the strengths of both domains, military forces can develop more effective and versatile strategies to counter the growing UAS threat. The ongoing advancements and strategic implementations discussed in this document highlight the importance of continued investment and innovation in this field. As drone technology continues to evolve, so too must the defenses designed to counter it, ensuring that military operations can effectively mitigate the risks posed by these versatile and pervasive threats.

In conclusion, the rapid evolution of drone technology and the increasing sophistication of counter-UAS systems have transformed the landscape of modern warfare. The experiences gained in conflicts such as the Ukraine war and the ongoing hostilities in the Middle East have highlighted the importance of adaptability and innovation in drone warfare strategies. As adversaries continue to develop new tactics and technologies, military forces must remain vigilant and proactive in their efforts to counter the growing threat posed by drones. The integration of AI, autonomous systems, and advanced EW capabilities will be crucial in maintaining a strategic advantage and ensuring the effectiveness of counter-UAS operations in the future.


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