What no one tells you about the COVID-19 masks: Classification – Use – Recognition of scams

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Application of PPE in Response to COVID-19 Pandemic

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)

The need for PPE should be based on the anticipated exposure to the blood and body substance and precautions should be based on the mode of transmission of the infectious agents.

The COVID-19 virus is spread mainly from person-to-person in close contact with one another, through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes and by the host touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching mucus membrane.

The precautions applied for COVID-19 includes contact and droplet precautions with the addition of airborne for aerosol generating procedures (AGPs), hand hygiene and environmental cleaning (including shared equipment).

The PPE should be elected according to the manufacturer’s product label that describes an intended use with the desired level of protection, based on the risk levels of care provided.

Considerations when using a gown for suspected or confirmed cases

When minimal liquid penetration is expected a :

  • Level 1 barrier gown is sufficient for personal protection;
  • Level 2 barrier protection is required when having close contact with symptomatic COVID-19 patients. For AGPs with COVID-19 patients,
  • Level 3-4 barrier protection is recommended. Refer to Appendix 1 for more information.

Considerations when using a surgical mask for suspected or confirmed cases

In the majority of situations where standard respiratory protection is needed, a single use surgical mask is appropriate (minimum Level 1 barrier). Refer to Appendix 2 for AS 4381: 2015 Single use surgical face mask standard.

  • Masks should be changed between patients and when they become soiled or wet
  • Masks should never be reapplied after they have been removed
  • Masks should not be left dangling around the neck
  • Touching the front of the mask while wearing it should be avoided
  • Hand hygiene should be performed upon touching or discarding a used mask.

HIGH PARTICULATE RESPIRATORS (P2/N95) MASKS

P2 respirators are designed to help reduce the wearer’s respiratory exposure to airborne contaminants such as particles, gases or vapours.

For COVID-19 the use of P2/N95 masks should be reserved for AGPs or where the risk assessment places the patient in airborne precautions.

When there is a high probability of aerosol transmission due to the infectious agent or procedure

e.g. bronchoscopy, sound scientific principles support the use of a P2 mask to prevent transmission.

While the terms ‘P2 mask and ‘N95 mask are often used interchangeably in the healthcare setting, they are required to meet different standards.

In Australia, the requirements for P2 masks are stated in Standard AS/NZS 1716: 2012.

The United States (US) National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) specifies N95 mask requirements.

The N95 versus P2 is associated with the testing requirements for compliance as respiratory protection.

See Table 1 for properties of the two masks.

Table 1: Properties of P2 and N95 masks

PROPERTIESP2 MASKSN95 MASKS
Other namesN95 masks, respiratory protection device, particulate respiratorP2 respirator, respiratory protection device, particulate respirator
CharacteristicsRaised dome or duckbill4–5 layers (outer polypropylene, central layers electret [charged polypropylene])Filtration through mechanical impaction and electrostatic captureDesigned to provide a good facial fit to minimise aerosol contamination of the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth P2 particulate filtering respirators/ masks must have a filter efficiency of at least 94% when tested with sodium chloride aerosol at a flow rate of 95 litres/minute. Under the EN system, aerosol testing is similar to Standard AS/ NZS 1716: 2012, but have additional filter efficiency testing with paraffin oil aerosol that must also meet the minimum 94% filter efficiency to be classified as P2. The particle size of this aerosol has a mass median diameter of 0.3 to 0.6 microns with a range of particles in the 0.02 to 2 micron size range.Raised dome or duckbill4–5 layers (outer polypropylene, central layers electret [charged polypropylene])Filtration through mechanical impaction and electrostatic captureDesigned to provide a good facial fit to minimise aerosol contamination of the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth NIOSH classified N95 particulate filtering respirators/masks must have a filter efficiency of at least 95% when tested with sodium chloride aerosol at a flow rate of 85 litres/minute.   N95 respirator masks can only be used for oil free aerosols. The particle size of this aerosol ~0.3 micron.
SealingTies at crown and bottom of head, pliable metal nose bridgeFit testing and fit checking recommendedTies at crown and bottom of head, pliable metal nose bridgeFit testing and fit checking recommended
Australian StandardsStandard AS/NZS 1715: 2009 Standard AS/NZS 1716: 2012Set by the US NIOSH classification (NIOSH Guidelines – Procedure No. TEB-APR-STP-0059)  
Intended useRoutine care of patients on airborne precautionsHigh-risk procedures such as bronchoscopy when the patient’s infectious status is unknownProcedures that involve aerosolisation of particles that may contain specific known pathogens (AGPs)Routine care of patients on airborne precautionsHigh-risk procedures such as bronchoscopy when the patient’s infectious status is unknownProcedures that involve aerosolisation of particles that may contain specific known pathogens (AGPs)
NotesCare must be taken if placing respirators on patients and must suit clinical need i.e. if the patient has chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD) or is in respiratory distress, the respirator will exacerbate symptoms.Care must be taken if placing respirators on patients and must suit clinical need i.e. if the patient has chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD) or is in respiratory distress, the respirator will exacerbate symptoms.
Source: Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare, 2019

IS A SURGICAL MASK A N95 RESPIRATOR ?

No. Surgical masks are not designed for use as particulate respirators and do not provide as much respiratory protection as an N95 respirator.

Surgical masks provide barrier protection against droplets including large respiratory particles.

Most surgical masks do not effectively filter small particles from the air and do not prevent leakage around the edge of the mask when the user inhales.[Reference: Rengasamy,S., B.C.Eimer, and R.E.Shaffer. (2009) Filtration performance of FDA-Cleared surgical masks. Journal International Society Respiratory Protection 26; 54-70.]

OSHA Video: The Difference Between Respirators and Surgical Masks

The Difference Between Respirators and Surgical Masks. U.S. Department of Labor Video, (2009, December 16). This video is available in English and Spanish and is available for downloading.

Do surgical masks provide protection against SARS – COVID-19?

Surgical masks are not designed for use as particulate respirators and do not provide as much protection as an N-95 respirator. Most surgical masks do not effectively filter small particles from air and do not prevent leakage around the edge of the mask when the user inhales.

If surgical masks do not protect against airborne diseases, why are surgical masks suggested for use against SARS/COVID-19 when no N-95 respirators are available?

Surgical masks are recommended only as a last resort for health care and medical transport workers exposed to SARS/COVID-19 patients when no NIOSH-approved respirator equivalent to or greater than the N-95 is available.

SARS/COVID-19appears to be transmitted mainly through direct contact with infectious materials (including large respiratory particles), and surgical masks will provide barrier protection against droplets that are considered to be the primary route of SARS/COVID-19 transmission.

However, surgical masks may not adequately protect against aerosol or airborne particles, primarily because they do not effectively filter small particles from the air, they allow leakage around the mask, and they cannot be fit tested.

Because scientists cannot currently rule out the spread of SARS/COVID-19 through the air, CDC recommends a NIOSH-approved respirator equivalent to or greater than the N-95.

Surgical masks may also be placed on patients with communicable conditions like SARS/COVID-19 to contain respiratory droplets and prevent spread of infectious particles.

FIT CHECKING AND FIT TESTING

Fit Checking

Fit checking at time of use is the most reliable method of ensuring the healthcare worker has achieved the required seal in real time.

Fit checking (user-seal check) describes the process that health workers perform each time a respirator is donned to check that a good facial seal is achieved i.e. the respirator is sealed over the bridge of the nose and mouth and there are no gaps between the respirator and the face.

Fit checking is a process used for all P2/N95 masks regardless of whether or not fit tested.

In NSW Health much of the testing and education for fit checking is with duckbill type masks but it should be highlighted there are differences depending on which mask is in use, and manufacturer’s instructions for specific mask fit check should always be followed.

Refer to Principles of Fit Checking for the procedure for performing a fit check.

In normal circumstances a service should have access to various masks to suit the range of staff. Refer to Appendix 3 for available P2/N95 Mask Range within NSW Health.

Fit Testing

Fit testing is performed to determine whether a specific type, model and size of respirator is a suitable fit for an individual and that it is worn correctly to achieve a facial seal.

Fit testing may use quantitative or qualitative methods:

  • quantitative methods use electronic equipment that measures air leakage into the respirator
  • qualitative methods use a hood and an odour or taste solution to determine the ability of the respirator wearer to smell or taste the test agent.

Application and barrier level of different types of PPE

P2/N95 masks must be prioritised for health workers performing AGPs, including tracheal intubation, bronchial suctioning, bronchoscopy, and induced sputum.

P2/N95 masks can be used for up to 4 hours for multiple patients without removing them unless the mask is damaged, soiled or contaminated, for example a symptomatic suspected case coughing on them.

Surgical mask Level 2-3 must be prioritised for symptomatic confirmed cases of COVID-19, followed by suspected cases. See Table 2 explaining the indications and required level of protection for different types of PPE.

Table 2: Application and barrier level of different types of PPE

GOWNSURGICAL MASKP2/N95 MASK
Level 1 barrier performanceLevel 1 barrier performanceP2/N95 mask with fluid resistance property
o  Minimal contact with COVID-19 suspected or confirmed cases with acute respiratory illness e.g. fever clinic assessments Respiratory specimen collection in fever clinics with minimal physical contactAssessment of patients in GP practice or outpatient clinicsHealth workers Procedures where low amounts of fluid, spray and/or droplets are produced* e.g. collecting respiratory specimens in low symptomatic patients NB eye protection is also recommendedProcedure involving MRI or any procedure involving minimal risk of exposure to droplets or other body substancesProtect health workers and/or the patient from droplet exposure to microorganisms e.g. patient with upper respiratory tract infection Community People on home isolation (people with symptoms of acute respiratory illness while in close proximity with other people e.g. in the same roomPeople with acute respiratory illness if needing to leave home for any reason e.g. visiting a medical facilityPatients suspected or confirmed with COVID-19 during transitP2/N95 respirators are only required for aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) or prolonged contact with critically ill patients – high volume/high frequency of care Examples of AGPs: tracheal intubationnon-invasive ventilation tracheotomycardiopulmonary resuscitationmanual ventilation before intubation and bronchoscopy or bronchoalveolar lavagedental and/or maxillary-facial procedures The use of nebulisers should be avoided and alternative medication administration devices used e.g. spacers or isolation tents NB: If a health worker remains in a patient room for a long period because of the need to perform multiple procedures, the use of a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) may be considered for additional comfort and visibility Use of PAPR requires training, education and competency assessment of staff prior to implementation
* Refer to Appendix 1 & 2 for details on barrier performance
GOWNSURGICAL MASK 
Level 2 barrier performanceLevel 2 barrier performance 
o  Close contact with symptomatic COVID-19 suspected or confirmed patientsProcedures where moderate to low amounts of fluid, spray and/or droplets are produced (including surgery)   When providing care for symptomatic suspected/confirmed COVID- 19 cases within <1.5 metres   Use with eye protection
Level 3 and 4 barrier performanceLevel 3 barrier performance
o  Aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) with COVID-19 patients e.g. intubation, bronchoscopy, prolonged contact with critically ill patients, dental and/or maxillary-facial proceduresProcedures where moderate to low amounts of fluid, spray and/or droplets are produced (including surgery)   When providing care for symptomatic suspected/confirmed COVID- 19 cases within <1.5 metres   Use with eye protection

Table 3: PPE guidance for care of patients with suspected/confirmed COVID-19

PPEOutpatient settings contact <1.5 Meter of Symptomatic CasesPatient Contact >1.5 MeterPatient Contact <1.5 Meter Of Symptomatic CaseHigh Risk Patient Environment# Contact <1.5 MeterAGP
Disposable GlovesYESNOYESYESYES
Disposable Plastic / impervious Apron  YES  NO  YES  YES  NO
Disposable Plastic / impervious Gown  RISK ASSESS**  NO  RISK ASSESS  RISK ASSESS  YES
Fluid Resistant Surgical Mask Level 2 -3  YES  NO  YES  YES  NO
P2/N95 Mask  NO  NO  NO  RISK ASSESS  YES
  Eye Protection  YES  NO  YES  YES  YES
Reference: Adapted from Public Health England March 2020

** Risk assessment is the individual assessment of the anticipated likelihood and amount of exposure to blood and or body substances through spray/splash resulting in the need for a barrier protection.

# High risk patient environment is considered to be those inpatient environments where multiple COVID-19 cases are isolated/managed in one place e.g. COVID-19 management units

Appendix 1: AAMI Level Standards for Gowns

Barrier PerformanceBarrier ProtectionResistance MeasureDescription
Level 1MinimalLiquid penetrationUsed for MINIMAL risk situations Provides a slight barrier to small amounts of fluid penetration Single test of water impacting the surface of the gown material is conducted to assess barrier protection performance.
Level 2LowLiquid penetrationUsed in LOW risk situations Provides a barrier to larger amounts of fluid penetration through splatter and some fluid exposure through soaking Two tests are conducted to assess barrier protection performance: Water impacting the surface of the gown materialPressurizing the material
Level 3ModerateLiquid penetrationUsed in MODERATE risk situations Provides a barrier to larger amounts of fluid penetration through splatter and more fluid exposure through soaking than Level 2 Two tests are conducted to test barrier protection performance: Water impacting the surface of the gown materialPressurizing the material
Level 4HighLiquid and viral penetrationUsed in HIGH risk situations Prevents all fluid penetration for up to 1 hour May prevent VIRUS penetration for up to 1 hour In addition to the other tests conducted under levels 1-3, barrier level performance is tested with a simulated blood containing a virus – if no virus is found at the end of the test, the gown passes
Extracted from Standard ASTM F1670 / F1670M

NB: the above does not include classification for chemotherapy gowns Plastic (or polyethylene gowns/aprons are fluid impervious.

Appendix 2: AS 4381:2015 Single use surgical face mask standard

AS 4381:2015 SINGLE USE FACE MASK
CharacteristicsLevel 1 BarrierLevel 2 BarrierLevel 3 BarrierTest method
 For procedures,For proceduresFor procedures such 
 where the wearer iswhere the wearer isas major trauma first 
 not at risk of blood orat risk of moderateaid or in any area 
 bodily substanceexposure to bloodwhere the health 
Applicationsplash or to protect staff and/or the patient from dropletand body substances e.g. surgery, dentistry,worker is at risk of substantial exposure to blood or bodily  N/A
 exposure togeneral patient caresubstance splash 
 microorganisms e.g.areas; to protecte.g. orthopaedic, 
 patient with upperstaff and/or thecardiovascular 
 respiratory tractpatient from dropletprocedures 
 infectionexposure  
Bacterial Filtration   ASTM
Efficiency (BFE) %≥ 95%≥ 98%≥ 98%F2101-14 or EN
    14683:2014
Particulate    
Filtration Efficiency (PFE) % (0.1 μm)< 4.0< 5.0< 5.0EN 14683:2014
Resistance to penetration by synthetic blood (fluid  80mm Hg  120mm Hg  160mm Hg  ASTM F1862 /F1862M-13 or ISO 22609
resistance) min    
pressure in mm    
Hg for pass result    
Extracted from AS 4381: 2015 Single use surgical face mask standard

Use of respirators approved under standards used in other countries that are similar to NIOSH-approved N95 respirators

Other countries approve respirators for occupational use and approve respirators to these standards.

These products are evaluated using some methods similar to those used by NIOSH, and some methods that are different, but are expected to protect HCPs.

These respirators are expected to provide protection to workers.

Those with equivalent or similar protection to NIOSH-approved respirators may be available to provide respiratory protection to workers exposed to harmful airborne particulate matter.

These devices are expected to be suitable alternatives to provide protection during the COVID-19 response when supplies are short.

The country, conformity assessment standards, acceptable product classifications, standards and guidance documents, and protection factor determination are provided in alphabetical order.

All of these respirators have protection factors of at least 10 in the countries listed below, as outlined in the standards and guidance documents specified.

Use of respirators approved under standards used in other countries that are similar to NIOSH-approved N95 respirators

CountryPerformance StandardAcceptable product classificationsStandards/Guidance DocumentsProtection Factor ≥ 10
AustraliaAS/NZS 1716:2012P3 P2AS/NZS 1715:2009YES
BrazilABNT/NBR 13698:2011PFF3 PFF2Fundacentro CDU 614.894YES
ChinaGB 2626-2006KN 100 KP100 KN95 KP95GB/T 18664—2002YES
EuropeEN 149-2001FFP3 FFP2EN 529:2005YES
JapanJMHLW-2000DS/DL3 DS/DL2JIS T8150: 2006YES
KoreaKMOEL-2017-64Special 1stKOSHA GUIDE H-82-2015YES
MexicoNOM-116-2009N100, P100, R100 N99, P99, R99 N95, P95, R95NOM-116YES
US NIOSH RequirementsNIOSH approved
42 CFR 84
N100, P100, R100
N99, P99, R99
N95, P95, R95
OSHA 29CFR1910.134YES

Before going into the analysis of production standards and the real characteristics of the masks produced around the world, I want to deepen the theme of the masks produced in China.

Please bear in mind:

Only those that meet the certain pharmaceutical industry standard ( in China the standard is YY0469-2011) can be called “medical surgical masks”.

Let’s dive into the types of medical masks first.

According to the literature of the Beijing Medical Device Inspection Institute’s materials, currently China’s medical masks are mainly divided into three types:

  1. Medical protective mask with the highest protection level;
  2. Medical surgical masks commonly used in invasive operating environments such as operating rooms;
  3. Ordinary grade disposable medical masks

Firstly, medical protective masks

What does a medical mask look like?

Equivalent to cup-shaped mask. Common arches and butterflies are shown in the figure below.

Compared with long medical surgical masks and ordinary medical masks, medical protective masks have a good fit with the wearer’s face, can filter particles in the air, and block pollutants such as droplets, blood, body fluids and secretions The filtration efficiency of non-oily particles can reach 95%.

Medical Surgical Masks

Medical surgical masks, which implement the standard YY0469-2011(China’s Standard of Medical Surgical Masks), are commonly used medical masks in operating rooms and other environments where there is a risk of bodily fluids and blood splashes.

They can block blood and bodily fluids from passing through the masks and contaminate the wearer.

At the same time, the filtration efficiency of bacteria is over 95%.

However, the filtration efficiency of particles is limited, and most of them have a rectangular design, and the adhesion to the face is not as tight as that of a medical protective mask.

Common medical surgical masks include strap type and ear hook type.

Third, ordinary medical masks

Ordinary medical masks have many names (medical care and disposable medical belong to this category). Medical masks without the words “protection” and “surgical” are ordinary medical masks.

It is not required to have a barrier effect on blood, and there is no requirement for tightness, so it is only used for wearing in a general medical environment.

The common ordinary medical masks are mostly ear-hung, and their appearance is similar to that of ear-hung surgical masks, as shown below.

What is N95 and what does it have to do with medical protective masks?

The N95 mask is one of nine anti-particulate masks certified by NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health).

Particulate matter protective masks, commonly known as dust masks, are a kind of special labor protection products.

Domestic production of particulate matter protective masks requires an industrial product production license, and the products should meet the mandatory national standard GB2626-2006.

“N” means oil-resistant particles (not resistant to oil, the oil fume produced by cooking is oily particles, and the droplets produced by people speaking or coughing are not oily); “95” refers to the NIOSH standard Under the detection conditions, the filtration efficiency reached 95%.

N95 is not a specific product name.

As long as the product meets the N95 standard and passes the NIOSH review, it can be called a “N95 mask”.

Filter Materials ClassificationFiltering Efficiency 95%Filtering Efficiency 99%Filtering Efficiency 99.97%
NN95N99N100
RR95R99R100
PP95P99P100

Respirators are rated “N,” if they are Not resistant to oil, “R” if somewhat Resistant to oil, and “P” if strongly resistant (oil Proof)

Package Identification Requirements:  In addition to the product model and trademark, the words “NIOSH”, the filtering efficiency level, and the NIOSH certification number of the product are also marked.

This number can be queried on the NIOSH official website for users to verify information, such as: NIOSH N95 TC-84A-0007.

Please be noted that those produced in China that meet the corresponding Chinese standard GB2626-2006 are called KN95.

Filter Materials ClassificationFiltering Efficiency 90%Filtering Efficiency 95%Filtering Efficiency 99.97%
KNKN90KN95KN100
KPKP90KP95KP100

KN: Suitable for preventing non-oily particles, such as various types of dust, smoke, KP: Suitable for preventing non-oily particles and oily particles. Typical oily particles such as soot, oil mist, asphalt smoke, diesel particulates and coke oven smoke.

Package Identification Requirements: In addition to the product model and trademark, the filtering efficiency level, and the certification number of the product are also marked, such as: GB2626-2006 KN95

For masks that comply with the European standard EN149-2001, they are called FFP masks.

FFP masks are suitable for both non-oily and non-oily particles, but they are also classified into three different levels according to different filtering efficiency, as shown in the figure:

Filter Materials ClassificationFFP1*FFP2*FFP3*
Filtering Efficiency80%94%99%

*Note: Suitable for both oil particles and non-oily particles

Package Identification Requirements: In addition to the product model and trademark, the filtering efficiency level, and the certification number of the product are also marked, such as: EN149-2001 FFP3 CE0121.

The N95 mask has a filtration efficiency of more than 95% for particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≥ 0.3µm.

The aerodynamic diameter of air bacteria and fungal spores mainly varies between 0.7-10µm, and it is also within the protective range of N95 masks.

Therefore, N95 masks can be used for respiratory protection of certain particulates, such as dust generated during grinding, cleaning and processing of minerals, flour and certain other materials.

It is also suitable for liquid or non-oily non-production caused by spraying.

Hazardous volatile gas particles. Can effectively filter and purify the inhaled abnormal odors (except toxic gases), help reduce the exposure level of certain inhalable microbial particulates (such as mold, anthrax, tuberculosis, etc.), but cannot eliminate contact infection, illness or death risks of.

The US Department of Labor has recommended that medical personnel use N95 masks to prevent microbial airborne diseases such as influenza and tuberculosis.

Take coronavirus as an example (2019-nCoV is a kind of coronavirus), with an average diameter of about 100nm, that is, 0.1.um, plus a propagation vector, such as droplets of about 1-5um in diameter, and N95 filters 0.3um non-oily particles With an effect of ≥95%, N95 can achieve effective filtration.

If it is a hospital-specific N95 mask, it is the aforementioned medical protective mask, that is, the material of the outer surface of the mask has the ability to block pressure body fluid from splashing and penetrating.

While meeting the NIOSH requirements, it must also meet GB19083-2010 Medical requirements.

What is GB19083-2010 for medical protective masks and YY0469-2011 for medical surgical masks?

A2: The picture below is the standard comparison of three masks.

Medical MaskYY/T 0969-2013YY 0469-2011GB 19083-2010
NameOne-time-use medical face maskSurgical MaskProtective face mask for medical use
ApplicationSuitable for covering the mouth, nose and jaw of the user, and is a disposable mask for wearing in ordinary medical environment, and blocking the pollutants exhaled or sprayed out of the mouth and nose.Disposable masks suitable for use by clinical medical personnel during invasive procedures. It is used to cover the user’s mouth, nose, and jaw, and provides a physical barrier to prevent direct penetration of pathogenic microorganisms, body fluids, particulate matter, etc.Self-priming filtering medical protective mask suitable for filtering particulates in air, blocking droplets, blood, body fluids, secretions, etc. in medical working environments…
Subjects for testing the filtering efficiencyBacterial aerosol
MPS: 3um
Bacterial aerosol
MPS: 3um
NaCl aerosol
CMD: 0.075um
MMAD: 0.24um
Bacterial filtering efficiency≥ 95%≥ 95%Not available
Particles filtering efficiencyNot available≥ 30%
(Non-oily particles)
Level 1: ≥ 30%
Level 2: ≥ 99%
Level 3: ≥ 99.97%
(Non-oily particles)
Ventilation resistance≤ 49 Pa
(Gas flow: 8L/min)
≤ 49 Pa
(Gas flow: 8L/min)
≤ 343.2 Pa
(Gas flow: 85L/min)
Synthetic blood penetrationNot available2ml of synthetic blood is sprayed on the outer side of the mask at a pressure of 16.0kpa (120 mmHg). The inner side of the mask should not penetrate.2ml of synthetic blood is sprayed on the outer side of the mask at a pressure of 10.07kpa (80 mmHg). The inner side of the mask should not penetrate.

The outer packaging of the product is printed with YY0469-2011 standard, which can be confirmed as a medical surgical mask.

Someone said online that the spelling of the name of the mask’s outer packaging completely conforms to the six words “medical surgical masks” is also a way to determine whether it is a medical surgical mask. Is it true?

Not exactly! In fact, because of different manufacturers and different product batches, these six words may not all be there.

Limited re-use of N95 respirators for COVID-19 patients

Limited re-use of N95 respirators when caring for patients with COVID-19 might become necessary.

he recommendations are intended for use by professionals who manage respiratory protection programs in healthcare institutions to protect health care workers from job-related risks of exposure to infectious respiratory illnesses.

Supplies of N95 respirators can become depleted during an influenza pandemic (1-3) or wide-spreadoutbreaks of other infectious respiratory illnesses.(4) Existing CDC guidelines recommend a combination of approaches to conserve supplies while safeguarding health care workers in such circumstances. These existing guidelines recommend that health care institutions:

  • Minimize the number of individuals who need to use respiratory protection through the preferential use of engineering and administrative controls;
  • Use alternatives to N95 respirators (e.g., other classes of filtering facepiece respirators, elastomeric half-mask and full facepiece air purifying respirators, powered air purifying respirators) where feasible;
  • Implement practices allowing extended use and/or limited reuse of N95 respirators, when acceptable; and
  • Prioritize the use of N95 respirators for those personnel at the highest risk of contracting or experiencing complications of infection.

This document focuses on one of the above strategies, the extended use and limited reuse of N95 respirators only; please consult the CDC or NIOSH website for guidance related to implementing the other recommended approaches for conserving supplies of N95 respirators.

There are also non-emergency situations (e.g., close contact with patients with tuberculosis) where N95 respirator reuse has been recommended in healthcare settings and is commonly practiced.(5-9) This document serves to supplement previous guidance on this topic.

Definitions

 

Extended  use refers to the practice of wearing the same N95 respirator for repeated close contact encounters with several patients, without removing the respirator between patient encounters.

Extended use may be implemented when multiple patients are infected with the same respiratory pathogen and patients are placed together in dedicated waiting rooms or hospital wards.

Extended use has been recommended as an option for conserving respirators during previous respiratory pathogen outbreaks and pandemics.(1011)

Reuse1 refers to the practice of using the same N95 respirator for multiple encounters with patients but removing it (‘doffing’) after each encounter.

The respirator is stored in between encounters to be put on again (‘donned’) prior to the next encounter with a patient. For pathogens in which contact transmission (e.g., fomites) is not a concern, non-emergency reuse has been practiced for decades.(7)

For example, for tuberculosis prevention, CDC recommends that a respirator classified as disposable can be reused by the same worker as long as it remains functional2 and is used in accordance with local infection control procedures.(9)

Even when N95 respirator reuse is practiced or recommended, restrictions are in place which limit the number of times the same FFR is reused.

Thus, N95 respirator reuse is often referred to as “limited reuse”.

Limited reuse has been recommended and widely used as an option for conserving respirators during previous respiratory pathogen outbreaks and pandemics.(2310-12)

Implementation

The decision to implement policies that permit extended use or limited reuse of N95 respirators should be made by the professionals who manage the institution’s respiratory protection program, in in consultation with their occupational health and infection control departments with input from the state/local public health departments.

 The decision to implement these practices should be made on a case by case basis taking into account respiratory pathogen characteristics (e.g., routes of transmission, prevalence of disease in the region, infection attack rate, and severity of illness) and local conditions (e.g., number of disposable N95 respirators available, current respirator usage rate, success of other respirator conservation strategies, etc.).

Some healthcare facilities may wish to implement extended use and/or limited reuse before respirator shortages are observed, so that adequate supplies are available during times of peak demand.

For non-emergency (routine) situations, current CDC recommendations (69) specific to that pathogen should also be consulted.

The following sections outline specific steps to guide implementation of these recommendations, minimize the challenges caused by extended use and reuse, and to limit risks that could result from these practices.

Respirator Extended Use Recommendations

Extended use is favored over reuse because it is expected to involve less touching of the respirator and therefore less risk of contact transmission.

Please see the section on Risks of Extended Use and Reuse of Respirators for more information about contact transmission and other risks involved in these practices.

A key consideration for safe extended use is that the respirator must maintain its fit and function. Workers in other industries routinely use N95 respirators for several hours uninterrupted.

Experience in these settings indicates that respirators can function within their design specifications for 8 hours of continuous or intermittent use.

Some research studies (1415) have recruited healthcare workers as test subjects and many of those subjects have successfully worn an N95 respirator at work for several hours before they needed to remove them.

Thus, the maximum length of continuous use in non-dusty healthcare workplaces is typically dictated by hygienic concerns (e.g., the respirator was discarded because it became contaminated) or practical considerations (e.g., need to use the restroom, meal breaks, etc.), rather than a pre-determined number of hours.

If extended use of N95 respirators is permitted, respiratory protection program administrators should ensure adherence to administrative and engineering controls to limit potential N95 respirator surface contamination (e.g., use of barriers to prevent droplet spray contamination) and consider additional training and reminders (e.g., posters) for staff to reinforce the need to minimize unnecessary contact with the respirator surface, strict adherence to hand hygiene practices, and proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) donning and doffing technique.(16) Healthcare facilities should develop clearly written procedures to advise staff to take the following steps to reduce contact transmission after donning:

  • Discard N95 respirators following use during aerosol generating procedures.
  • Discard N95 respirators contaminated with blood, respiratory or nasal secretions, or other bodily fluids from patients.
  • Discard N95 respirators following close contact with, or exit from, the care area of any patient co-infected with an infectious disease requiring contact precautions.
  • Consider use of a cleanable face shield (preferred3) over an N95 respirator and/or other steps (e.g., masking patients, use of engineering controls) to reduce surface contamination.
  • Perform hand hygiene with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer before and after touching or adjusting the respirator (if necessary for comfort or to maintain fit).

Extended use alone is unlikely to degrade respiratory protection. However, healthcare facilities should develop clearly written procedures to advise staff to:

  • Discard any respirator that is obviously damaged or becomes hard to breathe through.

Respirator Reuse Recommendations

There is no way of determining the maximum possible number of safe reuses for an N95 respirator as a generic number to be applied in all cases.

Safe N95 reuse is affected by a number of variables that impact respirator function and contamination over time.(1819)

However, manufacturers of N95 respirators may have specific guidance regarding reuse of their product.

The recommendations below are designed to provide practical advice so that N95 respirators are discarded before they become a significant risk for contact transmission or their functionality is reduced.

If reuse of N95 respirators is permitted, respiratory protection program administrators should ensure adherence to administrative and engineering controls to limit potential N95 respirator surface contamination (e.g., use of barriers to prevent droplet spray contamination) and consider additional training and/or reminders (e.g., posters) for staff to reinforce the need to minimize unnecessary contact with the respirator surface, strict adherence to hand hygiene practices, and proper PPE donning and doffing technique, including physical inspection and performing a user seal check.(16) Healthcare facilities should develop clearly written procedures to advise staff to take the following steps to reduce contact transmission:

  • Discard N95 respirators following use during aerosol generating procedures.
  • Discard N95 respirators contaminated with blood, respiratory or nasal secretions, or other bodily fluids from patients.
  • Discard N95 respirators following close contact with any patient co-infected with an infectious disease requiring contact precautions.
  • Consider use of a cleanable face shield (preferred3) over an N95 respirator and/or other steps (e.g., masking patients, use of engineering controls), when feasible to reduce surface contamination of the respirator.
  • Hang used respirators in a designated storage area or keep them in a clean, breathable container such as a paper bag between uses. To minimize potential cross-contamination, store respirators so that they do not touch each other and the person using the respirator is clearly identified. Storage containers should be disposed of or cleaned regularly.
  • Clean hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer before and after touching or adjusting the respirator (if necessary for comfort or to maintain fit).
  • Avoid touching the inside of the respirator. If inadvertent contact is made with the inside of the respirator, discard the respirator and perform hand hygiene as described above.
  • Use a pair of clean (non-sterile) gloves when donning a used N95 respirator and performing a user seal check. Discard gloves after the N95 respirator is donned and any adjustments are made to ensure the respirator is sitting comfortably on your face with a good seal.

To reduce the chances of decreased protection caused by a loss of respirator functionality, respiratory protection program managers should consult with the respirator manufacturer regarding the maximum number of donnings or uses they recommend for the N95 respirator model(s) used in that facility.

If no manufacturer guidance is available, preliminary data(1920) suggests limiting the number of reuses to no more than five uses per device to ensure an adequate safety margin.

Management should consider additional training and/or reminders for users to reinforce the need for proper respirator donning techniques including inspection of the device for physical damage (e.g., Are the straps stretched out so much that they no longer provide enough tension for the respirator to seal to the face?, Is the nosepiece or other fit enhancements broken?, etc.).

Healthcare facilities should provide staff clearly written procedures to:

  • Follow the manufacturer’s user instructions, including conducting a user seal check.
  • Follow the employer’s maximum number of donnings (or up to five if the manufacturer does not provide a recommendation) and recommended inspection procedures.
  • Discard any respirator that is obviously damaged or becomes hard to breathe through.
  • Pack or store respirators between uses so that they do not become damaged or deformed.

Secondary exposures can occur from respirator reuse if respirators are shared among users and at least one of the users is infectious (symptomatic or asymptomatic).

Thus, N95 respirators must only be used by a single wearer. To prevent inadvertent sharing of respirators, healthcare facilities should develop clearly written procedures to inform users to:

  • Label containers used for storing respirators or label the respirator itself (e.g., on the straps(11)) between uses with the user’s name to reduce accidental usage of another person’s respirator.

 Risks of Extended Use and Reuse of Respirators

 Although extended use and reuse of respirators have the potential benefit of conserving limited supplies of disposable N95 respirators, concerns about these practices have been raised.

Some devices have not been FDA-cleared for reuse(21). Some manufacturers’ product user instructions recommend discard after each use (i.e., “for single use only”), while others allow reuse if permitted by infection control policy of the facility.(19)

The most significant risk is of contact transmission from touching the surface of the contaminated respirator. One study found that nurses averaged 25 touches per shift to their face, eyes, or N95 respirator during extended use.(15)

Contact transmission occurs through direct contact with others as well as through indirect contact by touching and contaminating surfaces that are then touched by other people.

Respiratory pathogens on the respirator surface can potentially be transferred by touch to the wearer’s hands and thus risk causing infection through subsequent touching of the mucous membranes of the face (i.e., self-inoculation).

While studies have shown that some respiratory pathogens (22-24) remain infectious on respirator surfaces for extended periods of time, in microbial transfer (25-27) and reaerosolization studies (28-32) more than ~99.8% have remained trapped on the respirator after handling or following simulated cough or sneeze.

Respirators might also become contaminated with other pathogens acquired from patients who are co-infected with common healthcare pathogens that have prolonged environmental survival (e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Clostridium difficile, norovirus, etc.).

These organisms could then contaminate the hands of the wearer, and in turn be transmitted via self-inoculation or to others via direct or indirect contact transmission.

The risks of contact transmission when implementing extended use and reuse can be affected by the types of medical procedures being performed and the use of effective engineering and administrative controls, which affect how much a respirator becomes contaminated by droplet sprays or deposition of aerosolized particles.

For example, aerosol generating medical procedures such as bronchoscopies, sputum induction, or endotracheal intubation, are likely to cause higher levels of respirator surface contamination, while source control of patients (e.g. asking patients to wear facemasks), use of a face shield over the disposable N95 respirator, or use of engineering controls such as local exhaust ventilation are likely to reduce the levels of respirator surface contamination.(18)

While contact transmission caused by touching a contaminated respirator has been identified as the primary hazard of extended use and reuse of respirators, other concerns have been assessed, such as a reduction in the respirator’s ability to protect the wearer caused by rough handling or excessive reuse.(1920)

Extended use can cause additional discomfort to wearers from wearing the respirator longer than usual.(1415) However, this practice should be tolerable and should not be a health risk to medically cleared respirator users.(19)

Prioritize the use of N95 respirators and facemasks by activity type

The number of infectious particles required to cause an infection (infectious dose) is often uncertain or unknown for respiratory pathogens.

Further, there is often uncertainty about the influence of factors such as exposure duration and nature of clinical symptoms on the likelihood of infection transmission from person-to-person.

When facemasks must be used by HCP entering a patient care area, source control (i.e. masking of symptomatic patients) and maintaining distance from the patient are particularly important to reduce the risk of transmission.

This prioritization approach to conservation is intended to be used when N95 respirators are so limited that routinely practiced standards of care for all HCP wearing N95 respirators when caring for a COVID-19 patient are no longer possible.

N95 respirators beyond their manufacture-designated shelf life, when available, are preferable to use of facemasks.

The use of N95s or elastomeric respirators or PAPRs should be prioritized for HCP with the highest potential exposures including being present in the room during aerosol generating procedures performed on symptomatic persons.

Suggested facemask or respirator use, based upon distance from a patient with suspected or known COVID-19 and use of source control*

Prioritize the use of N95 respirators and facemasks by activity type
HCP planned proximity to the case patient during encounterFacemask or respirator determination 
Patient masked for entire encounter (i.e., with source control)Unmasked patient or mask needs to be removed for any period of time during the patient encounter 
HCP will remain at greater than 6 feet from symptomatic patientHCP remaining at this distance from the patient should not need to enter the patient care area; if entry required: no facemask or respiratorHCP remaining at this distance from the patient should not need to enter the patient care area; if entry required: no facemask or respirator 
HCP will be within 3 to 6 feet of symptomatic patientHCP remaining at this distance from the patient should not need to enter the patient care area; if entry required: facemaskHCP remaining at this distance from the patient should not need to enter the patient care area; if entry required: facemask 
HCP will be within 3 feet of symptomatic patient, including providing direct patient careFacemaskN95 respirator/ elastomeric /PAPR, based on availability 
HCP will be present in the room during aerosol generating procedures performed on symptomatic personsN95 respirator/ elastomeric /PAPR, based on availabilityN95 respirator/ elastomeric /PAPR, based on availability 

*Based on availability, organizations may require and/or individuals may voluntarily choose to utilize higher levels of protection

What is a respirator and what is a NIOSH-approved N-95 respirator?

A respirator is a personal protective device that is worn on the face, covers at least the nose and mouth, and is used to reduce the wearer’s risk of inhaling hazardous airborne particles (including dust particles and infectious agents), gases, or vapors.

The many types of respirators available include

(1) particulate respirators, which filter out airborne particles;

(2) “gas masks,” which filter out chemicals and gases;

(3) airline respirators, which use compressed air from a remote source; and

(4) self-contained breathing apparatus, which include their own air supply.

The category of particulate respirator can be further divided into

(1) disposable or filtering facepiece respirators, where the entire respirator is discarded when it becomes unsuitable for further use due to excessive resistance, sorbent exhaustion, or physical damage;

(2) reusable or elastomeric respirators, where the facepiece is cleaned and reused but the filter cartridges are discarded and replaced when they become unsuitable for further use; and

(3) powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs), where a battery-powered blower moves the air flow through the filters.

An N-95 respirator is one of nine types of disposable particulate respirators.
Particulate respirators are also known as “air-purifying respirators” because they protect by filtering particles out of the air as you breathe.

These respirators protect only against particles—not gases or vapors.

Since airborne biological agents such as bacteria or viruses are particles, they can be filtered by particulate respirators.

Respirators that filter out at least 95% of airborne particles during “worse case” testing using a “most-penetrating” sized particle are given a 95 rating.

Those that filter out at least 99% receive a “99” rating.

And those that filter at least 99.97% (essentially 100%) receive a “100” rating.

Respirators in this family are rated as N, R, or P for protection against oils.

This rating is important in industry because some industrial oils can degrade the filter performance so it doesn’t filter properly.

Respirators are rated “N,” if they are Not resistant to oil, “R” if somewhat Resistant to oil, and “P” if strongly resistant (oil Proof).

Thus, there are nine types of disposable particulate respirators:

  • N-95, N-99, and N-100;
  • R-95, R-99, and R-100;
  • P-95, P-99, and P-100

NIOSH uses very high standards to test and approve respirators for occupational uses.

NIOSH-approved disposable respirators are marked with the manufacturer’s name, the part number (P/N), the protection provided by the filter (e.g., N-95), and “NIOSH.”

This information is printed on the facepiece, exhalation valve cover, or head straps.

View a listing of all NIOSH-approved disposable respirators

If a disposable respirator does not have these markings and does not appear on one of these lists, it has not been certified by NIOSH. 

NIOSH-Approved Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators

The NIOSH-approved products are listed by brand. Links to the manufacturers’ websites are provided as a courtesy to users and NIOSH is not responsible for the content of those pages.

Also included is the manufacturer’s phone number, product model number, approval number (84A-XXXX), an indication if the product has an exhalation valve, and the user donning instructions.

The manufacturer’s donning procedure and/or user instructions are also provided here as a courtesy to the user.

Manufacturers’ recommended procedures for performing a user seal check can be included in the donning procedures and/or user instructions as alternatives to the OSHA-specified procedures under the respiratory protection standard .

NIOSH does not evaluate the efficacy and reliability of any user seal check procedures, but OSHA will accept the manufacturer’s recommended procedures if the employer demonstrates those procedures are equally effective as those identified in the standard.

Each manufacturer is responsible for updating the links on their website and/or providing NIOSH with an updated or revised copy when changes are made.

The tables were created to provide easy access to a comprehensive listing of NIOSH-approved particulate filtering facepiece respirators and also to provide easy access to the donning process/user instructions.

The tables are not updated as frequently as the certified equipment list, which is the official NIOSH certification record.

Searching for a Product Using the Certified Equipment List

If you have a product that is not listed on the provided tables use the searchable certified equipment list.

Follow these steps to search for NIOSH-approved disposable particulate respirators:

  1. In For Protections Against section, select N95, N99, N100, R95, P95, or P100.
  2. In Facepiece Type section, select only Filtering Facepiece.
  3. Select View Results.

If your product is not listed, you should scroll through the list of “Private Label” products.

Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) Labels

Individual filtering facepiece respirators are required to have the following markings:

  1. Name of approval holder/manufacturer business name, a registered trademark, or an easily understood abbreviation of the applicant/approval holder’s business name as recognized by NIOSH. When applicable, the name of the entity to which the FFR has been private labeled by the approval holder may replace the approval holder business name, registered trademark, or abbreviation of the approval holder business name as recognized by NIOSH.
  2. NIOSH in block letters or the NIOSH logo.
  3. NIOSH Testing and Certification approval number, e.g., TC-84A-XXXX.
  4. NIOSH filter series and filter efficiency level, e.g., N95, N99, N100, R95, P95, P99, P100.
  5. Model number or part number: The approval holder’s respirator model number or part number, represented by a series of numbers or alphanumeric markings, e.g., 8577 or 8577A.

NIOSH recommends the lot number and/or date of manufacture also be included, however, this is not required.

Sample of a generic filtering facepiece respirator with appropriate markings.

Filtering facepiece respirators that are private labeled are required to have the following statement on the packaging as a special S caution and limitation statement identified on the full label and located in the respirator user instructions:

  • Marketed by xxxxxx (the private label company name).
  • Produced by xxxxxx (the approval holder company name).

This private label related statement does not need to appear on the exterior surface of the respirator as part of the required name marking.

NIOSH-Approved N95 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators

Manufacturers Listed Alphabetically

The N95 respirator is the most common of the seven types of particulate filtering facepiece respirators. This product filters at least 95% of airborne particles but is not resistant to oil.

This web page provides a table of NIOSH-approved N95 respirators, listed alphabetically by manufacturer. You can select a particular manufacturer by clicking on the first letter of their name on the index below.

There are some products that are approved by NIOSH as an N95 respirator and also cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a surgical mask.

 These products are referred to as Surgical N95 Respirators

For your convenience the Surgical N95 Respirators are indicated with the Model Number/Product Line in bold text followed by (FDA).

If you have a product you believe is NIOSH-approved and FDA-cleared that does not appear on this list, you will need to check with the FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health at 1-800-638-2041 for validation of clearance. 

  • N95 –N95 – Filters at least 95% of airborne particles. Not resistant to oil.
  • Surgical N95 – A NIOSH-approved N95 respirator that has also been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a surgical mask.
  • N99 – Filters at least 99% of airborne particles. Not resistant to oil.
  • N100 – Filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles. Not resistant to oil.
  • R95 – Filters at least 95% of airborne particles. Somewhat resistant to oil.
  • P95 – Filters at least 95% of airborne particles. Strongly resistant to oil.
  • P99 – Filters at least 99% of airborne particles. Strongly resistant to oil.
  • P100 – Filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles. Strongly resistant to oil.

Respirator Trusted-Source Information

Surgical N95 Respirators

This table of Surgical N95’s is provided as a courtesy. If you have a product that you believe is FDA cleared that does not appear on this table, you should verify the FDA clearance by contacting the FDA at 1-800-638-2041.

Surgical N95 Respirators
Supplier/ManufacturerModel/ProductApproval NumberUser Donning Instructions
3M Companyexternal icon
888-3M HELPS
1860
1860S
84A-0006[PDF – 72 KB]external icon
187084A-3844pdf icon[PDF – 190 KB]external icon
180584A-5469pdf icon[PDF – 330 KB]external icon
1805S84A-5470pdf icon[PDF – 330 KB]external icon
1870+84A-5726[PDF – 285 KB]external icon
180484A-7789pdf icon[PDF – 298 KB]external icon
1804S84A-7790pdf icon[PDF – 298 KB]external icon
Aero Pro Company, LTDexternal icon
886-4-875-6141
AP0018 N9584A-4049pdf icon[PDF – 63 KB]external icon
AP002884A-4175pdf icon[PDF – 65 KB]external icon
Alpha Pro Techexternal icon
800-749-1363
MAS 69584A-0457pdf icon[PDF – 211 KB]external icon
Ammex Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
N95F84A-4541pdf icon[PDF – 5.6 MB]external icon
N95CMA84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Cardinal Healthexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
617-964-1365
N95-ML84A-3323pdf icon[PDF – 842 KB]external icon
N95-S84A-4107pdf icon[PDF – 5.6 MB]external icon
N95A-ML84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
N95A-S84A-5463pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Cardinal Healthexternal icon [*Z]
866-401-8972
817-427-2700
USA-N95-R84A-5527pdf icon[PDF – 3.2 MB]external icon
CVS Pharmacy, Inc.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
617-964-1365
39957584A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
Dentec Safety [*E]
888-533-6832
AD4N9584A-4541pdf icon[PDF – 581 KB]external icon
AD2N95A84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Dynarex Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
617-964-1365
229584A-3323pdf icon[PDF – 842 KB]external icon
2296A84A-4541pdf icon[PDF – 5.5 MB]external icon
2295A84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Emerald Medical Inc.external icon [*E]
610-670-8571
617-964-1365
N950084A-3323pdf icon[PDF – 2.7 MB]external icon
Emerald Professional Productsexternal icon [*E]
610-670-8571
617-964-1365
N9500A84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
First Aid Directexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
305050A84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
GlaxoSmithCline Consumer Healthcareexternal icon [*C]
800-821-7236
800-430-5490
ActiProtect UF84A-5163pdf icon[PDF – 59 KB]external icon
Halyard Health, Inc.external icon
800-331-4112
46827 (FDA)84A-7518pdf icon[PDF – 561 KB]external icon
46828 (FDA)84A-7519pdf icon[PDF – 561 KB]external icon
46867 (FDA)84A-7520pdf icon[PDF – 561 KB]external icon
46727 (FDA)84A-7521pdf icon[PDF – 561 KB]external icon
46728 (FDA)84A-7522pdf icon[PDF – 561 KB]external icon
46767 (FDA)84A-7523pdf icon[PDF – 561 KB]external icon
42355  (FDA)84A-7524pdf icon[PDF – 561 KB]external icon
42126 (FDA)84A-7525pdf icon[PDF – 561 KB]external icon
Inovel, LLCexternal icon [*J]
800-421-0668;
1511
1512
1513
1517
Obsolete 08/2009
84A-0013pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
Kimberly-Clark Corporationexternal icon
800-524-3577
46827
46867
84A-0005pdf icon[PDF – 1.07 MB]external icon
46727
46767
84A-0010pdf icon[PDF – 1.07 MB]external icon
Livingstone International Pty, Ltd.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
617-964-1365
FMN95RN84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
173084A-0160pdf icon[PDF – 122 KB]external icon
2130
2131
84A-4123pdf icon[PDF – 122 KB]external icon
Magid Glove and Safety, LLCexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
617-964-1365
910-N9584A-3323pdf icon[PDF – 842 KB]external icon
Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon
800-379-9929
617-964-1365
910-N9584A-3323pdf icon[PDF – 842 KB]external icon
910-N95S84A-4107pdf icon[PDF – 5.6 MB]external icon
910-N95FMX84A-4541pdf icon[PDF – 5.6 MB]external icon
9500-N9584A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
9500-N95S84A-5463pdf icon[PDF – 615 KB]external icon
Medline Industries, Inc.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
617-964-1365
NON2450684A-3323pdf icon[PDF – 842 KB]external icon
NON2450784A-4107pdf icon[PDF – 5.6 MB]external icon
NON24506A84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
NON24507A84A-5463pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
1511
1512
1513
1517
84A-0013pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
2210GN95-XS
2211GN95-S
2212GN95-M/L
2217GN95-LP
84A-4339pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
151084A-5171pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
3211N95-S
3212N95-ML
3217N95-LP
84A-5172pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
171284A-5227pdf icon[PDF – 127 KB]external icon
Pasture Pharma Pte. Ltd.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
PM1084A-4541pdf icon[PDF – 85 KB]external icon
PM1584A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 112 KB]external icon
Pasture Pharma Pte. Ltd.external icon [*Q]
8886-3-3808818
Pasture E520S
Pasture E520CS
84A-7453pdf icon[PDF – 1.3 MB]external icon
pdf icon[PDF – 1.3 MB]external icon
Pasture A520S
Pasture A520CS
84A-7454pdf icon[PDF – 3.1 MB]external icon
pdf icon[PDF – 3.3 MB]external icon
F550S
F550CS
84A-7504
Precept Medical Productsexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
65-339584A-3323pdf icon[PDF – 182 KB]external icon
65-3395S84A-4107pdf icon[PDF – 182 KB]external icon
65-339584A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
65-3395S84A-5463pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
Prestige Ameritechexternal icon
866-401-8972
817-427-2700
RP8802084A-5216pdf icon[PDF – 256 KB]external icon
USA-N95-S84A-5229pdf icon[PDF – 1.8 MB]external icon
RP8801084A-5475pdf icon[PDF – 187 KB]external icon
USA-N95-R84A-5527pdf icon[PDF – 3.2 MB]external icon
Protective Industrial Products.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
270 300084A-4541pdf icon[PDF – 5.6 MB]external icon
270-2000A84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Pyramex Safety Productsexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
RM1084A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
Safety Zone, LLC.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
RS-900-N95A84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Shanghai Dasheng Health Products Manufacture Company, Ltd.external icon
86-21-5778-3126
DTC3M-184A-4331pdf icon[PDF – 247 KB]external icon
DTC3B84A-4336pdf icon[PDF – 247 KB]external icon
Shanghai Gangkai Purifying Products Company, Ltd.external icon
86-21-5777-5401
GIKO 140084A-4282pdf icon[PDF – 78 KB]external icon
Sperian Respiratory Protection USA, LLCexternal icon [*C]
800-821-7236
800-343-3411
800-430-5490
HC-NB09584A-4357pdf icon[PDF – 33 KB]external icon
HC-NB295F84A-4371pdf icon[PDF – 33 KB]external icon
HC-NB095F84A-4372pdf icon[PDF – 33 KB]external icon
HC-NB295FP84A-5667pdf icon[PDF – 70 KB]external icon
SteelProexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
173084A-0160pdf icon[PDF – 122 KB]external icon
Zhou Medical Solutions, LLCexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
9500-N95
Z120101
84A-5411pdf icon[PDF – 587 KB]external icon
9500-N95S
Z120102
84A-5463pdf icon[PDF – 587 KB]external icon
A – Private label of Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon (800-225-8623)
AA – Private label of Foss Manufacturing Companyexternal icon (603-929-6000)
C – Private label of Honeywell Safety Productsexternal icon (800-430-5490)
E – Private label of Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon (617-964-1365)
J – Private label of Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon (800-421-0668)
Q – Private label of Champak Enterprise Company, Ltd.external icon (886-3-3808818)
Z – Private Label of Prestige Ameritechexternal icon (817-427-2700)

NIOSH-Approved N99 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators

The N99 particulate filtering facepiece respirator filters at least 99% of airborne particles but is not resistant to oil.

NIOSH-Approved N99 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators
Supplier/Manufacturer and Contact InformationModel Number/
Product Line
Approval NumberValve
Yes/No
Manufacturer’s Donning Procedure User Instructions
Amston Tool Companyexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
1802-N9984A-7639Yes1802-N99 pdf icon[PDF – 174 KB]external icon
Bielcorexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
B30084A-3907YesB300 pdf icon[PDF – 110 KB]external icon
Blue Golf LLCexternal icon [*AD]
86-512-66100068
621984A-8146No6219 pdf icon[PDF – 129 KB]external icon
Champak Enterprise Company, Ltd.external icon
886-3-3808818
AP921VM
AP921VL
84A-8080YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 244 KB]external icon
Delta Plus Groupexternal icon [*S]
86-21-5778-3126
M1300VC84A-4399YesM1300VC pdf icon[PDF – 247 KB]external icon
Fairwin International, Ltd.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
N993884A-4081YesN9938 pdf icon[PDF – 167 KB]external icon
Gateway Safety, Inc.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
8040184A-3890No80401 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Gateway Safety, Inc.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
80402V84A-3907Yes80402V pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Innosparks Pte. Ltd. external icon [*Q]
886-3-3808818
AP921V
AP921VL
84A-8080YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 273 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
419084A-3890No4190 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
419184A-3907Yes4191 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Kimberly-Clark Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
6452084A-4554Yes64520 pdf icon[PDF – 1.2 MB]external icon
Koken, Ltd.external icon
81-3-5276-1925
Hi Luck 77584A-6813YesHi Luck 775 pdf icon[PDF – 77 KB]external icon
Liberty Gloveexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Liberty Gloveexternal icon)
A1899N84A-3890NoA1899N pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Liberty Gloveexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
A1899N/V84A-3907YesA1899N/V pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon)
1750
1751
84A-0204NoAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 124 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
1760
1761 Disposable
84A-0664YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 257 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
2160
2161
84A-5196YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 257 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
215084A-5208No2150 pdf icon[PDF – 1.6 MB]external icon
Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
N99-810V84A-4081YesN99-810V pdf icon[PDF – 156 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon)
2310
2315
84A-1459YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
2712N9984A-5207Yes2712N99 pdf icon[PDF – 345 KB]external icon
Occupational Safety & Healthexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
N99-888V84A-4081YesN99-888V pdf icon[PDF – 214 KB]external icon
Polyscientific Enterprise Sdn. Bhd. (ATEM)external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
401284A-3890No4012 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
San Huei United Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2683-0356
SH2650A84A-5477NoSH2650A pdf icon[PDF – 317 KB]external icon
San Huei United Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2683-0356
SH2650V84A-5478YesSH2650V pdf icon[PDF – 382 KB]external icon
San Huei United Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2683-0356
SH265084A-5484NoSH2650 pdf icon[PDF – 449 KB]external icon
Shanghai Dasheng Health Products Manufacture Company, Ltd.external icon
86-21-5778-3126
DTCA184A-4398NoDTCA1 pdf icon[PDF – 247 KB]external icon
Shanghai Dasheng Health Products Manufacture Company, Ltd.external icon
86-21-5778-3126
DTCA1-F84A-4399YesDTCA1-F pdf icon[PDF – 247 KB]external icon
Shanghai Dasheng Health Products Manufacture Company, Ltd.external icon
86-21-5778-3126
DTCA1N-F84A-4401YesDTCA1N-F pdf icon[PDF – 247 KB]external icon
Sichuan Feel Technology Company, Ltd.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
9901V84A-4081Yes9901V pdf icon[PDF – 219 KB]external icon
Sosega Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
13071584A-4081Yes130715 pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
Southern Ace Trading Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
C88V-N9984A-4081YesC88V-N99 pdf icon[PDF – 167 KB]external icon
South West Safety LLCexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
715684A-3890No7156 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
South West Safety LLCexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
715784A-3907Yes7157 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Sperian Respiratory Protection USA, LLC Productsexternal icon
800-821-7236
800-343-3411
[email protected]
N1139 S, M, L, XL84A-3845YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 36 KB]external icon
Sunwell Dynamics Resources Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
SWN99-810V84A-4081YesSWN99-810V pdf icon[PDF – 159 KB]external icon
SureWerx USA Incorporatedexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
6452084A-4554Yes64520 pdf icon[PDF – 119 KB]external icon
Suzhou Sanical Protective Product Manufacturing Company, Ltd.external icon
86-512-66100068 [email protected]
MS621984A-8146NoMS6219 pdf icon[PDF – 129 KB]external icon
Thai Industrial Gases Public Companyexternal icon [*S]
86-21-5778-3126
3521UM-00484A-4399Yes3521UM-004 pdf icon[PDF – 247 KB]external icon
Toolway Industries, LTDexternal icon [*S]
86-21-5778-3126
10005584A-4401Yes100055 pdf icon[PDF – 247 KB]external icon
Tsingtao Productsexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
10902184A-4081Yes109021 pdf icon[PDF – 3.6 MB]external icon
Vicsa Steelproexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
M9920V RD9920V
(RDL Brand)
84A-7639YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 174 KB]external icon
Westingarea Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
A9109V84A-4081YesA9109V pdf icon[PDF – 1.2 MB]external icon

Notes

Notes
NotesCompanyPhone Number
*ADPrivate label of Suzhou Sanical Protective Product Manufacturing Company, Ltdexternal icon86-512-66100068
*EPrivate label of Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
*MPrivate Label of Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon886-2-2690-2271
*QPrivate Label of Champak Enterprise Company, Ltd.external icon886-3-3808818
*SPrivate Label of Shanghai Dasheng Health Products Manufacture Company, Ltd.external icon86-21-5778-3126

NIOSH-Approved N100 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators

The N100 particulate filtering facepiece respirator filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles but is not resistant to oil.

NIOSH-Approved N100 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators
Supplier/Manufacturer and Contact InformationModel Number/
Product Line
Approval NumberValve
Yes/No
Manufacturer’s Donning Procedure User Instructions
3M Companyexternal icon
888-3M HELPS or web formexternal icon
(Distribution availability for all products listed for 3M Companyexternal icon)
823384A-1298Yes8233external icon
Gateway Safety, Inc.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
80502V84A-6850Yes80502V pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
410184A-6850Yes4101 pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
Libus of Buenos Aires, Argentinaexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
478084A-6850Yes4780 pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson, Companyexternal icon
800-225-8623
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Louis M. Gerson, Companyexternal icon)
218084A-5035Yes2180 pdf icon[PDF – 261 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson, Companyexternal icon
800-225-8623
218184A-5035Yes2181 pdf icon[PDF – 261 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson, Companyexternal icon
800-225-8623
218584A-5035Yes2185 pdf icon[PDF – 261 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon)
2730N100
2731N100
84A-3143YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 115 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
4700N10084A-6963No4700N100 pdf icon[PDF – 115 KB]external icon
Prosafe Systemsexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
SV23384A-6850YesSV233 pdf icon[PDF – 263 KB]external icon
Safety Works, LLCexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
218084A-5035Yes2180 pdf icon[PDF – 261 KB]external icon
Trend Routing Technology, Inc.external icon [*AH]
44 (0) 1772 790820 (UK)
F01.1.010 (Sm/Md) F01.1.012 (Md Lg)84A-8123YesPending NIOSH receipt from company

Notes

Notes
NotesCompanyPhone Number
*APrivate label of Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon800-225-8623
*AHPrivate label of Air Filtration Solutions, Ltd.external icon44 (0) 1772 790820 (UK)
*MPrivate Label of Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon886-2-2690-2271

NIOSH-Approved R95 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators

The R95 particulate filtering facepiece respirator filters at least 95% of airborne particles and is somewhat resistant to oil.

>NIOSH-Approved R95 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators
Supplier/Manufacturer and Contact InformationModel Number/
Product Line
Approval NumberValve
Yes/No
Manufacturer’s Donning Procedure User Instructions
3M Companyexternal icon
888-3M HELPS or web formexternal icon
(Distribution availability for all products listed for 3M Companyexternal icon)
8240
8246
8247
8276
8277
84A-1350NoAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 262 KB]external icon
3M Companyexternal icon
888-3M HELPS or web formexternal icon
8246CN84A-5400No8246CN pdf icon[PDF – 259 KB]external icon
3M Companyexternal icon
888-3M HELPS or web formexternal icon
8247CN84A-5401No8247CN pdf icon[PDF – 259 KB]external icon
Alpha Solway Limitedexternal icon [*N]
886-37-741471
3030V84A-8090Yes3030V pdf icon[PDF – 174 KB]external icon
Alpha Solway Limitedexternal icon [*N]
886-37-741471
AMF-V384A-8092YesAMF-V3 pdf icon[PDF – 124 KB]external icon
AMC Ecuador CIA, Ltdaexternal icon [*M]
866-2-2690-2271
124784A-4322No1247 pdf icon[PDF – 99 KB]external icon
Dräger Safety AG & Company, KGaAexternal icon
800-858-1737
X-plore 1360 (p/n 39 51 225 and 39 51 235)84A-4376NoX-plore 1360 pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Dräger Safety AG & Company, KGaAexternal icon
800-858-1737
X-plore 1360 (p/n 39 51 226 and 39 51 236)84A-4377YesX-plore 1360 pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Dräger Safety AG & Company, KGaAexternal icon
800-858-1737
X-plore 1760 (p/n 39 51 326)84A-4556YesX-plore 1760 pdf icon[PDF – 256 KB]external icon
Dräger Safety AG & Company, KGaAexternal icon
800-858-1737
X-plore 1360 R95 Odor S/M (p/n 39 51 368)84A-5290NoX-plore 1360 R95 Odor pdf icon[PDF – 538 KB]external icon
Fido Mask Company, Ltd.external icon
886-37-741471
F333V84A-7795YesF333V pdf icon[PDF – 1.1 MB]external icon
Fido Mask Company, Ltd.external icon
886-37-741471
3030V84A-8090Yes3030V pdf icon[PDF – 922 KB]external icon
Fido Mask Company, Ltd.external icon
886-37-741471
AMF-3V84A-8092YesAMF-3V pdf icon[PDF – 1.2 MB]external icon
Fido Mask Company, Ltd.external icon
886-37-741471
T50084A-8117NoT500 pdf icon[PDF – 242 KB]external icon
Fido Mask Company, Ltd.external icon
886-37-741471
T500V84A-8124YesT500V pdf icon[PDF – 211 KB]external icon
Fido Mask Company, Ltd.external icon
886-37-741471
S3-V84A-8423YesS3-V pdf icon[PDF – 157 KB]external icon
Gateway Safety, Inc.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
80602V84A-7722Yes80602V pdf icon[PDF – 90 KB]external icon
GROUPE BBH, Incexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
4252
151004
84A-4322NoAll models pdf icon[PDF – 111 KB]external icon
Grupo M&R S.A.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
R5184A-4322NoR51 pdf icon[PDF – 112 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
4250 R9584A-4050No4250 R95 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
425184A-4321Yes4251 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
425284A-4322No4252 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
4251B84A-7722No4251B pdf icon[PDF – 122 KB]external icon
JSP Limitedexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
12884A-4050No128 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
JSP Limitedexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
14984A-4321Yes149 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
JSP Limitedexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
12984A-4322No129 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Kimberly-Clark Corporationexternal icon [*I]
886-2-2683-0356
4742484A-4111Yes47424 pdf icon[PDF – 135 KB]external icon
Kimberly-Clark Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
6441084A-4545Yes64410 pdf icon[PDF – 5.6 MB]external icon
Libus of Buenos Aires, Argentinaexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
814084A-0383Yes8140 pdf icon[PDF – 257 KB]external icon
Libus of Buenos Aires, Argentinaexternal icon [*M]
866-2-2690-2271
484084A-4321Yes4840 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Libus of Buenos Aires, Argentinaexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
194084A-5349Yes1940 pdf icon[PDF – 376 KB]external icon
Libus of Buenos Aires, Argentinaexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
184584A-6947Yes1845 pdf icon[PDF – 15.5 MB]external icon
Libus of Buenos Aires, Argentinaexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
193584A-7834No1935 pdf icon[PDF – 429 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon)
184084A-0383Yes1840 pdf icon[PDF – 83 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
183084A-0384No1830 pdf icon[PDF – 76 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
224084A-5275Yes2240 pdf icon[PDF – 83 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
194084A-5349Yes1940 pdf icon[PDF – 376 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
184584A-6947Yes1845 pdf icon[PDF – 68 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
193584A-7834No1935 pdf icon[PDF – 429 KB]external icon
Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
610VR9584A-5154Yes610VR95 pdf icon[PDF – 615 KB]external icon
Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
R95-620V84A-5437YesR95-620V pdf icon[PDF – 615 KB]external icon
Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon
800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
MK610-R95OV84A-7619NoMK610-R95OV pdf icon[PDF – 1.1 MB]external icon
McCordick Glove and Safetyexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
184084A-0383Yes1840 pdf icon[PDF – 257 KB]external icon
McCordick Glove and Safetyexternal icon [*M]
866-2-2690-2271
SRS101384A-4322NoSRS1013 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
McCordick Glove and Safetyexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
184584A-6947Yes1845 pdf icon[PDF – 15.5 MB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon)
2940R95
2941R95
84A-3174YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
2840R95
2841R95
84A-3321YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
2740R95
2741R95
84A-3331NoAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
2840R95
2841R95
M2840R95
84A-7868YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
Prosafe Systemsexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
SV24684A-4322NoSV246 pdf icon[PDF – 100 KB]external icon
PT. Wahana Safetyexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
ALS-805V-R9584A-5154YesALS-805V-R95 pdf icon[PDF – 93 KB]external icon
San Huei United Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2683-0356
SH2960V84A-4111YesSH2960V pdf icon[PDF – 45 KB]external icon
San Huei United Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2683-0356
F2650A84A-5477NoF2650A pdf icon[PDF – 317 KB]external icon
San Huei United Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2683-0356
F2650V84A-5478YesF2650V pdf icon[PDF – 382 KB]external icon
San Huei United Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2683-0356
SH265084A-5484NoSH2650 pdf icon[PDF – 449 KB]external icon
SAS Safety Corporationexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
862084A-4050No8620 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
SAS Safety Corporationexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
862184A-4321Yes8621 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Sosega Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
13072084A-5154Yes130720 pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
South West Safety LLCexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
716084A-4050No7160 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
SteelProexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
184584A-6947Yes1845 pdf icon[PDF – 15.5 MB]external icon
Sunwell Dynamics Resources Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Sunwell Dynamics Resources Corporationexternal icon)
SWR95-610V84A-5154YesSWR95-610V pdf icon[PDF – 718 KB]external icon
ToolPro, Inc.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
TP0620084A-4322NoTP06200 pdf icon[PDF – 88 KB]external icon
Truper Herramientas, SA de CVexternal icon [*I]
886-2-2683-0356
MAS-VACE84A-4111YesMAS-VACE pdf icon[PDF – 45 KB]external icon
Vicsa Safety Comercial Limitadaexternal icon [*N]
886-37-741471
F333V84A-7795YesF333V pdf icon[PDF – 1.1 MB]external icon

Notes

Notes
NotesCompanyPhone Number
*APrivate label of Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon800-225-8623
*EPrivate label of Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)
*IPrivate label of San Huei United Company, Ltd.external icon886-2-2683-0356
*MPrivate Label of Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon886-2-2690-2271
*NPrivate Label of Fido Industrial Safety Masks Manufacturer Company, Ltd.external icon886-37-741471

NIOSH-Approved P95 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators

The P95 particulate filtering facepiece respirator filters at least 95% of airborne particles and is strongly resistant to oil.

NIOSH-Approved P95 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators
Supplier/Manufacturer and Contact InformationModel Number/
Product Line
Approval NumberValve
Yes/No
Manufacturer’s Donning Procedure User Instructions
3M Companyexternal icon
888-3M HELPS or web formexternal icon
(Distribution availability for all products listed for 3M Companyexternal icon)
8271
8576
8577
84A-1166YesAll Modelsexternal icon
3M Companyexternal icon
888-3M HELPS or web formexternal icon
8557CN84A-5399No8557CN pdf icon[PDF – 260 KB]external icon
3M Companyexternal icon
888-3M HELPS or web formexternal icon
8576CN84A-7775Yes8576CN pdf icon[PDF – 535 KB]external icon
Amston Tool Companyexternal icon [*E]
800-397-9929
1804-P95C84A-5041Yes1804-P95C pdf icon[PDF – 1 MB]external icon
Amston Tool Companyexternal icon [*E]
800-397-9929
1812-MKP95VC84A-7528Yes1812-MKP95VC pdf icon[PDF – 175 KB]external icon
Amston Tool Companyexternal icon [*E]
800-397-9929
1811-MKP95V84A-7696Yes1811-MKP95V pdf icon[PDF – 176 KB]external icon
Andanda Industry Technology (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.external icon [*E]
800-397-9929
AIWIN 1009284A-7528YesAIWIN 10092 pdf icon[PDF – 595 KB]external icon
Aswan International Corporationexternal icon
866-2-8369-2525
M81484A-5640YesM814 pdf icon[PDF – 320 KB]external icon
Aswan International Corporationexternal icon
866-2-8369-2525
M81584A-6264YesM815 pdf icon[PDF – 305 KB]external icon
Aswan International Corporationexternal icon
866-2-8369-2525
M814R84A-6758YesM814R pdf icon[PDF – 1.5 MB]external icon
Blueair China, Ltd.external icon [*E]
800-397-9929
950184A-6660No9501 pdf icon[PDF – 2.2 MB]external icon
Blue Golf LLCexternal icon [*AD]
86-512-66100068
P38584A-8422YesP385 pdf icon[PDF – 258 KB]external icon
Dong Guan AiOu Electronicsexternal icon [*E]
800-397-9929
DF192184A-7696YesDF1921 pdf icon[PDF – 251 KB]external icon
DSI Safetyexternal icon [*B]
866-2-8369-2525
RP814P9584A-5640YesRP814P95 pdf icon[PDF – 320 KB]external icon
DSI Safetyexternal icon [*B]
866-2-8369-2525
RP815P9584A-6264YesRP815P95 pdf icon[PDF – 320 KB]external icon
DSI Safetyexternal icon [*B]
866-2-8369-2525
RP814AP9584A-6758YesRP814AP95 pdf icon[PDF – 320 KB]external icon
DSI Safety Inc.external icon [*AF]
91-022-2769-2646
RPD814P95OA84A-7884YesRPD814P95OA pdf icon[PDF – 173 KB]external icon
DSI Safety Inc.external icon [*AF]
91-022-2769-2646
RPD814P9584A-7885YesRPD814P95 pdf icon[PDF – 481 KB]external icon
DSI Safety Inc.external icon [*AF]
91-022-2769-2646
RPD614P9584A-8144YesRPD614P95 pdf icon[PDF – 773 KB]external icon
F&W Supply Inc.external icon [*E]
800-397-9929
813V84A-5041Yes813V pdf icon[PDF – 167 KB]external icon
Fido Mask Company, Ltd.external icon
886-37-741471
3030CV84A-8134Yes3030CV pdf icon[PDF – 169 KB]external icon
Fido Mask Company, Ltd.external icon
886-37-741471
AMF-3CV84A-8450YesAMF-3CV pdf icon[PDF – 109 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
4425184A-8132Yes44251 pdf icon[PDF – 185 KB]external icon
Kimberly Clark Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-397-9929
3270484A-5533Yes32704 pdf icon[PDF – 93 KB]external icon
Kimberly Clark Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-397-9929
6456084A-5534Yes64560 pdf icon[PDF – 93 KB]external icon
Kimberly Clark Corporationexternal icon
800-241-3146
6456084A-6770
Obsolete 07/2019
Yes64560 pdf icon[PDF – 93 KB]external icon
Kimberly Clark Corporationexternal icon
800-241-3146
3270484A-6769
Obsolete 07/2019
Yes32704 pdf icon[PDF – 93 KB]external icon
Kosto Productsexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
RMK11084A-7528YesRMK110 pdf icon[PDF – 192 KB]external icon
Libus of Buenos Aires, Argentinaexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
244084A-7517Yes2440 pdf icon[PDF – 101 KB]external icon
Libus of Buenos Aires, Argentinaexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
244584A-7853No2445 pdf icon[PDF – 261 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
2340
2340OV
2340-OV/AG
84A-4319YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 261 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
244084A-7517Yes2440 pdf icon[PDF – 110 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
244584A-7853Yes2445 pdf icon[PDF – 12.7 MB]external icon
Magid Glove and Safety Manufacturing Companyexternal icon [*E]
800-397-9929
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Magid Glove and Safety, LLCexternal icon)
IR1970P9584A-5041NoIR1970P95 pdf icon[PDF – 167 KB]external icon
Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon
800-397-9929
P95-710VOV84A-5041YesP95-710VOV pdf icon[PDF – 5.6 MB]external icon
Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon
800-397-9929
3270484A-5533Yes32704 pdf icon[PDF – 93 KB]external icon
Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon
800-397-9929
6456084A-5534Yes64560 pdf icon[PDF – 93 KB]external icon
McCordickexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
244084A-7517Yes2440 pdf icon[PDF – 101 KB]external icon
Medline Industries Inc.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
VENP95V84A-5041YesVENP95V pdf icon[PDF – 156 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
4300P9584A-6959No4300P95 pdf icon[PDF – 120 KB]external icon
Nogider (Shanghai) International Trade Co., Ltd.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
82322V84A-7528Yes82322V pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
Nogider (Shanghai) International Trade Co., Ltd.external icon [*E]
800-379-9929
82312V84A-7696Yes82312V pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
North Safety Productsexternal icon
800-430-4110
8140P9584A-3848
Obsolete 03/2013
Yes8140P95 pdf icon[PDF – 265 KB]external icon
North Safety Productsexternal icon
800-430-4110
8145P9584A-4324
Obsolete 03/2013
Yes8145P95 pdf icon[PDF – 433 KB]external icon
PT. Wahana Safetyexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
ALS-804VOV-P9584A-7528YesALS-804VOV-P95 pdf icon[PDF – 169 KB]external icon
Safe Life Corporation
858-794-3200
T-500084A-4110
Obsolete 11/2011
NoT-5000 pdf icon[PDF – 144 KB]external icon
Safe Life Corporation
858-794-3200
T-5000V84A-4234
Obsolete 11/2011
YesT-5000V pdf icon[PDF – 144 KB]external icon
Sosega Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
13072584A-5041Yes130725 pdf icon[PDF – 586 KB]external icon
Sperian Respiratory Protection USA, LLCexternal icon
800-821-7236
800-343-3411
[email protected]
Saf-T-Fit models P1115 M/L, XL84A-3877NoSaf-T-Fit models P1115 pdf icon[PDF – 33 KB]external icon
Sperian Respiratory Protection USA, LLCexternal icon
800-821-7236
800-343-3411
[email protected]
Saf-T-Fit models P1135M/L
P1135XL
84A-3879YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 33 KB]external icon
Sperian Respiratory Protection USA, LLCexternal icon
800-821-7236
800-343-3411
[email protected]
P1135 M/L
P1135 XL
P1135-1 ML
P1135-1 XL
84A-3879YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 33 KB]external icon
SteelProexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
244084A-7517Yes2440 pdf icon[PDF – 101 KB]external icon
Sunwell Dynamics Resources Corporationexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Sunwell Dynamics Resources Corporationexternal icon)
SWP95-710VOV84A-5041YesSWP95-710VOV pdf icon[PDF – 718 KB]external icon
SureWerx USA Incorporatedexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
6442084A-4544Yes64420 pdf icon[PDF – 101 KB]external icon
Suzhou Sanical Protective Product Manufacturing Company, Ltd.external iconexternal icon
86-512-66100068 [email protected]
P38584A-8422YesP385 pdf icon[PDF – 258 KB]external icon
Venus Safety & Health Pvt., Ltd.external icon
91-022-2769-2646
RPD814P95OA84A-7884YesRPD814P95OA pdf icon[PDF – 468 KB]external icon
Venus Safety & Health Pvt., Ltd.external icon
91-022-2769-2646
RPD814P9584A-7885YesRPD814P95 pdf icon[PDF – 826 KB]external icon
Venus Safety & Health Pvt., Ltd.external icon
91-022-2769-2646
RPD614P9584A-8144YesRPD614P95 pdf icon[PDF – 773 KB]external icon
Vicsa Steelproexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
M9720CV
RD9720CV (RDL Brand)
84A-7528YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 675 KB]external icon
Vicsa Steelproexternal icon [*E]
800-379-9929
M9720V84A-7696YesM9720V pdf icon[PDF – 675 KB]external icon
Wurth International Trading America, Inc.external icon [*A]
800-225-8623
244584A-7853YesPending NIOSH receipt from company
Zee Medicalexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
244084A-7517Yes2440 pdf icon[PDF – 101 KB]external icon

Notes

Notes
NotesCompanyPhone Number
*APrivate label of Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon800-225-8623
*ADPrivate label of Suzhou Sanical Protective Product Manufacturing Company, Ltdexternal icon86-512-66100068
*AFPrivate label of Venus Safety & Healthexternal icon91-022-2769-2646
*BPrivate label of Aswan International Corporationexternal icon866-2-8369-2525
*EPrivate label of Makrite Industries, Inc.external icon800-379-9929
86-21-5431-3117 (China)

NIOSH-Approved P99 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators

The P99 particulate filtering facepiece respirator filters at least 99% of airborne particles and is strongly resistant to oil.

NIOSH-Approved P99 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators
Supplier/Manufacturer and Contact InformationModel Number/
Product Line
Approval NumberValve
Yes/No
Manufacturer’s Donning Procedure User Instructions
Safe Life Corporation
858-794-3200
T600084A-5184
Obsolete 11/2011
NoT6000 Cdc-pdf[PDF – 144 KB]External
Safe Life Corporation
858-794-3200
T6000V84A-5185
Obsolete 11/2011
YesT6000V Cdc-pdf[PDF – 144 KB]External

NIOSH-Approved P100 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators

The P100 particulate filtering facepiece respirator filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles and is strongly resistant to oil.

NIOSH-Approved P100 Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators
Supplier/Manufacturer and Contact InformationModel Number/
Product Line
Approval NumberValve
Yes/No
Manufacturer’s Donning Procedure User Instructions
3M Companyexternal icon
888-3M HELPS or web formexternal icon
(Distribution availability for all products listed for 3M Companyexternal icon)
829384A-2561Yes8293external icon
Arbill Industries, Inc.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
A50179084A-4010YesA501790 pdf icon[PDF – 40 KB]external icon
DSI Safety, Inc.external icon [*AF]
91-022-2769-2646
RPD914P10084A-7887YesRPD914P100 pdf icon[PDF – 421 KB]external icon
Fido Mask Companyexternal icon
886-37-741471
F533384A-8541YesF5333 pdf icon[PDF – 187 KB]external icon
Gateway Safety, Inc.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
80902V84A-4010Yes80902V pdf icon[PDF – 40 KB]external icon
Gateway Safety, Inc.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
80904V84A-7854Yes80904V pdf icon[PDF – 252 KB]external icon
GROUPE BBH, Inc.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
44301
151005
84A-7854YesAll models pdf icon[PDF – 311 KB]external icon
Honeywell Internationalexternal icon
86-21-5777-5401
P1130S
P1130 M/L
P1130XL
84A-6767YesAll Models pdf icon[PDF – 181 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
430184A-4010Yes4301 pdf icon[PDF – 40 KB]external icon
Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon
886-2-2690-2271
4430184A-7854Yes44301 pdf icon[PDF – 252 KB]external icon
JSP, Ltd.external icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
13984A-4010Yes139 pdf icon[PDF – 40 KB]external icon
Klein Tools, Inc.external icon [*AJ]
44 1524 847600 ext 262 (UK)
Elipse P100 half-mask84A-6949YesElipse P100 half-mask pdf icon[PDF – 246 KB]external icon
Libus of Buenos Aires, Argentinaexternal icon [*M]
866-2-2690-2271
498084A-4010Yes4980 pdf icon[PDF – 40 KB]external icon
Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon
800-225-8623
228084A-6972Yes2280 pdf icon[PDF – 143 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
(Distribution availability for all products listed for Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon)
2360P10084A-3642Yes2360P100 pdf icon[PDF – 375 KB]external icon
Moldex-Metric, Inc.external icon
800-421-0668
440084A-7633Yes4400 pdf icon[PDF – 102 KB]external icon
North Safety Productsexternal icon
800-430-4110
8150P100
Obsolete 08/2011
84A-4122Yes8150P100 pdf icon[PDF – 1.4 MB]external icon
Prosafe Systemsexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
SV29384A-4010YesSV293 pdf icon[PDF – 273 KB]external icon
Safety Works, LLCexternal icon [*A]
800-225-8623
228084A-6972Yes2280 pdf icon[PDF – 154 KB]external icon
SAS Safetyexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
864184A-4010Yes8641 pdf icon[PDF – 40 KB]external icon
South West Safety LLCexternal icon [*M]
886-2-2690-2271
717784A-4010Yes7177 pdf icon[PDF – 40 KB]external icon
Sperian Respiratory Protection USA, LLCexternal icon
800-821-7236
800-343-3411
[email protected]
Saf-T-Fit P1130S, M/L, XL84A-4270YesSaf-T-Fit P1130S pdf icon[PDF – 108 KB]external icon
Venus Safety & Health Pvt., Ltd.external icon
91-022-2769-2646
RPD914P10084A-7887YesRPD914P100 pdf icon[PDF – 680 KB]external icon

Notes

Notes
NotesCompanyPhone Number
*APrivate Label of Louis M. Gerson Company, Inc.external icon800-225-8623
*AFPrivate Label of Venus Safety & Healthexternal icon91-022-2769-2646
*AJPrivate label of GVS Filter Technology UK, Ltd.external icon44 1524 847600 ext 262 (UK)
*MPrivate Label of Jinfuyu Industrial Company, Ltd.external icon886-2-2690-2271

NIOSH also maintains a database of all NIOSH- approved respirators regardless of respirator type on the Certified Equipment List.


References

  1.      Murray, M., J. Grant, E. Bryce, P. Chilton, and L. Forrester: Facial protective equipment, personnel, and pandemics: impact of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus on personnel and use of facial protective equipment. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 31(10): 1011-1016 (2010).
  2.     Beckman, S., B. Materna, S. Goldmacher, J. Zipprich, M. D’Alessandro, D. Novak et al.: Evaluation of respiratory protection programs and practices in California hospitals during the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. American Journal of Infection Control 41(11): 1024-1031 (2013).
  3.   Hines, L., E. Rees, and N. Pavelchak: Respiratory protection policies and practices among the health care workforce exposed to influenza in New York State: Evaluating emergency preparedness for the next pandemic. American Journal of Infection Control (2014).
  4. Srinivasan, A., D.B. Jernign, L. Liedtke, and L. Strausbaugh: Hospital preparedness for severe acute respiratory syndrome in the United States: views from a national survey of infectious diseases consultants. Clinical Infectious Diseases 39(2): 272-274 (2004).
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  6. Siegel, J.D., E. Rhinehart, M. Jackson, and L. Chiarello: “2007 Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in health care settings.” [Online] Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/pdf/isolation/isolation2007.pdfpdf icon, 2007).
  7. CDC: “Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health care facilities.” [Online] Available at https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr4313.pdfpdf icon, 1994).
  8. Bollinger, N., J. Bryant, W. Ruch, J. Flesch, E. Petsonk, T. Hodous et al.: “TB Respiratory Protection Program in Health Care Facilities, Administrator’s Guide.” [Online] Available at https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/99-143/, 1999).
  9.  Jensen, P., L. Lambert, M. Iademarco, and R. Ridzon: “Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care settings, 2005.” [Online] Available at https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5417a1.htm, 2005).
  10.  CDC: “Questions and Answers Regarding Respiratory Protection For Preventing 2009 H1N1 Influenza Among Healthcare Personnel” [Online] Available at https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/guidelines_infection_control_qa.htm, 2010).
  11. Rebmann, T., S. Alexander, T. Cain, B. Citarella, M. Cloughessy, and B. Coll “APIC position paper: extending the use and/or reusing respiratory protection in healthcare settings during disasters.” [Online] Available at http://www.apic.org/Resource_/TinyMceFileManager/Advocacy-PDFs/APIC_Position_Ext_the_Use_and_or_Reus_Resp_Prot_in_Hlthcare_Settings1209l.pdfpdf iconexternal icon, 2009).
  12. IOM: Reusability of facemasks during an influenza pandemic: facing the flu. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2006.
  13. Lin, C.S.: “FDA Regulation of Surgical Masks and Respirators.” [Online] Available at http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Activity Files/PublicHealth/ReusableFluMasks/FDApresentation12306.ashxexternal icon, 2006).
  14. Radonovich Jr, L.J., J. Cheng, B.V. Shenal, M. Hodgson, and B.S. Bender: Respirator tolerance in health care workers. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 301(1): 36-38 (2009).
  15. Rebmann, T., R. Carrico, and J. Wang: Physiologic and other effects and compliance with long-term respirator use among medical intensive care unit nurses. American Journal of Infection Control 41(12): 1218-1223 (2013).
  16. CDC: “Sequence for donning personal protective equipment PPE/Sequence for removing personal protective equipment.” [Online] Available at https://www.cdc.gov/HAI/pdfs/ppe/ppeposter148.pdfpdf icon
  17. Roberge, R.J.: Effect of surgical masks worn concurrently over N95 filtering facepiece respirators: extended service life versus increased user burden. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice : JPHMP 14(2): E19-26 (2008).
  18. Fisher, E.M., J.D. Noti, W.G. Lindsley, F.M. Blachere, and R.E. Shaffer: Validation and Application of Models to Predict Facemask Influenza Contamination in Healthcare Settings. Risk Analysis in press(2014).
  19. Fisher, E.M., and R.E. Shaffer: Considerations for Recommending Extended Use and Limited Reuse of Filtering Facepiece Respirators in Healthcare Settings Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene: (in press) (2014).
  20. Bergman, M.S., D.J. Viscusi, Z. Zhuang, A.J. Palmiero, J.B. Powell, and R.E. Shaffer: Impact of multiple consecutive donnings on filtering facepiece respirator fit. American Journal of Infection Control 40(4): 375-380 (2012).
  21. FDA: “510(k) Premarket Notification.” [Online] Available at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfPMN/pmn.cfmexternal icon, 2014).
  22. Casanova, L., W.A. Rutala, D.J. Weber, and M.D. Sobsey: Coronavirus survival on healthcare personal protective equipment. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 31(5): 560-561 (2010).
  23. Coulliette, A., K. Perry, J. Edwards, and J. Noble-Wang: Persistence of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus on N95 Respirators. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(7): 2148-2155 (2013).
  24. Fisher, E.M., and R.E. Shaffer: Survival of bacteriophage MS2 on filtering facepiece respirator coupons. Applied Biosafety: Journal of the American Biological Safety Association 15(2): 71 (2010).
  25. Lopez, G.U., C.P. Gerba, A.H. Tamimi, M. Kitajima, S.L. Maxwell, and J.B. Rose: Transfer Efficiency of Bacteria and Viruses from Porous and Nonporous Fomites to Fingers under Different Relative Humidity Conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(18): 5728-5734 (2013).
  26. Fisher, E.M., C.M. Ylitalo, N. Stepanova, and R.E. Shaffer: Assessing Filtering Facepiece Respirator Contamination During Patient Care in Flu Season: Experimental and Modeling Approaches. In ISRP — Sixteenth International Conference:A Global View on Respiratory Protection. Boston, 2012.
  27. Rusin, P., S. Maxwell, and C. Gerba: Comparative surface-to-hand and fingertip-to-mouth transfer efficiency of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and phage. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93(4): 585-592 (2002).
  28. Fisher, E.M., A.W. Richardson, S.D. Harpest, K.C. Hofacre, and R.E. Shaffer: Reaerosolization of MS2 bacteriophage from an N95 filtering facepiece respirator by simulated coughing. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 56(3): 315-325 (2012).
  29. Birkner, J.S., D. Fung, W.C. Hinds, and N.J. Kennedy: Particle release from respirators, part I: determination of the effect of particle size, drop height, and load. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 8(1): 1-9 (2011).
  30. Kennedy, N.J., and W.C. Hinds: Release of simulated anthrax particles from disposable respirators. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene1(1): 7-10 (2004).
  31. Qian, Y., K. Willeke, S.A. Grinshpun, and J. Donnelly: Performance of N95 respirators: reaerosolization of bacteria and solid particles. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 58(12): 876-880 (1997).
  32. Willeke, K., and Y. Qian: Tuberculosis control through respirator wear: performance of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-regulated respirators. American Journal of Infection Control 26(2): 139-142 (1998).

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