Central and Peripheral Effects of Cardamom Seed Ingestion on Energy Balance

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Cardamom seed (EC) ingestion has been shown to have multifaceted effects on energy balance. In animal studies, EC has been shown to:

  • Increase energy expenditure
  • Reduce appetite
  • Increase satiety
  • Improve glucose tolerance
  • Reduce lipid accumulation

These effects have been attributed to the bioactive compounds in EC, including:

  • Eugenol
  • Linalool
  • Terpineol
  • Limonene

These compounds have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties. They may also act on the brain to reduce appetite and increase satiety.

Human studies on the effects of EC on energy balance are limited. However, some studies have shown that EC can help to reduce body weight and body fat. For example, one study found that people who took EC capsules for 12 weeks lost an average of 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) more than people who took a placebo.

Another study found that EC can help to reduce appetite and increase satiety. In this study, people who took EC capsules before a meal ate an average of 12% less food than people who took a placebo.

These studies suggest that EC may be a promising natural compound for weight loss and weight management. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings.

Here are some additional potential benefits of EC ingestion:

  • Improved digestion
  • Increased energy levels
  • Reduced stress levels
  • Improved oral health
  • Boosted immunity

EC is generally safe for most people to consume. However, it is important to note that EC can interact with certain medications, so it is important to talk to your doctor before taking EC if you are taking any medications.

The present study delves into the comprehensive exploration of the effects of cardamom seed (EC) ingestion on energy balance in mice, examining both central and peripheral mechanisms.

Central effects encompass the regulation of hypothalamic peptide expression governing food intake and energy expenditure, as well as the modulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes.

Peripheral effects encompass adipose tissue lipolysis activation, augmented mitochondrial activity in skeletal muscle and liver, ultimately resulting in amplified energy expenditure and fat oxidation leading to diminished fat mass.

This article elucidates the interplay between these mechanisms, proposing two scenarios for interpretation.

Introduction
The intricate interplay between central and peripheral signals intricately regulates energy homeostasis. The hypothalamus acts as the central hub for integrating peripheral cues pertaining to energy balance, orchestrating the activity of various nuclei to induce or suppress food intake and energy expenditure.

In this context, the current study dives into the multifaceted effects of cardamom seed (EC) ingestion on energy balance, examining both central and peripheral dimensions.

Central Effects of EC Ingestion
The central effects of EC intake manifest through the modulation of hypothalamic peptides governing food intake and energy expenditure. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes are also influenced by EC consumption.

Specifically, EC leads to the downregulation of the HPT axis, primarily attributed to decreased body weight.

Such weight loss diminishes thyroxine (T4) release, consequently impacting hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesis, thereby creating a blockade of the negative feedback mechanism within the HPT axis.

This adjustment is likely influenced by enhanced type 2-deiodinase activity in the hypothalamus, leading to reduced T4 levels and a compensatory reduction in T3 release, promoting the downregulation of TRH gene transcription in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These intricate adjustments create an ‘adjusted hormonal milieu,’ facilitating peripheral activities.

Peripheral Effects of EC Ingestion
The peripheral ramifications of EC ingestion entail adipose tissue lipolysis activation, heightened mitochondrial activity in liver and skeletal muscle, culminating in escalated energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Enhanced hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity in adipose tissue, evidenced by Ser563 phosphorylation, is attributed to EC-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways.

This mechanism is akin to the action of compounds in other botanicals like Rosemary, Saffron, and soy-derived genistein. The resultant free fatty acids are absorbed by metabolic tissues, particularly skeletal muscle and liver, which concurrently exhibit increased mitochondrial activity and a decline in lipid accumulation. These adaptations are instrumental in promoting whole-body oxygen consumption and metabolic flexibility.

Interplay between Central and Peripheral Effects
EC’s effects on central and peripheral systems intertwine to orchestrate an intricate dance of energy balance regulation. The reduction in hypothalamic peptide expression, namely pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and TRH, is responsible for heightened food intake and reduced anorexigenic actions, offsetting the decreased body weight.

Notably, despite weight loss, EC ingestion does not trigger a surge in corticosterone levels, potentially owing to its anxiolytic effects through GABAA receptor activation. This interplay between hormones and peptides ultimately influences energy balance and metabolism in mice.

Therapeutic Potential and Future Prospects
The study underscores the therapeutic potential of EC as a nutraceutical spice to counter metabolic disorders. While two scenarios elucidate EC’s mechanism of action, further investigations are essential to unravel its nuanced effects fully. The dose-dependent response observed underscores its potential as a non-pharmacological therapy. To extend these findings to humans, dose conversion techniques employing body surface area normalization can guide future clinical studies, enabling the translation of findings from mice to potential human interventions.

Conclusion
In conclusion, this study illuminates the intricate interplay between central and peripheral mechanisms underpinning the energy balance modulation achieved through cardamom seed ingestion. The study proposes two interpretative scenarios while highlighting the potential for EC as a nutraceutical intervention for metabolic disorders.

The synergy of central peptide modulation and peripheral activity underscores the multifaceted nature of EC’s effects on energy homeostasis. Further research is warranted to unveil the finer intricacies of these mechanisms and their translational potential for human health.


reference link : https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/24/4/3909

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