Ye Elaine Wang, M.D., from the University of California, Los Angeles, and colleagues used data from 3,865 participants (aged 40 and older) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005 to 2008) to assess the association between glaucoma and daily dietary intake of PUFAs, including ω-3 fatty acids, among the U.S. population.
Of the 83,643,392 weighted survey participants included in the cross-sectional study, 3.7 percent met criteria for glaucoma.
The researchers found that increased levels of daily dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (odds ratio [OR], 0.06) and docosahexaenoic acid (OR, 0.06) were associated with significantly lower odds of having glaucoma.
However, there were significantly increased odds of meeting diagnostic criteria for glaucoma among participants with daily total dietary PUFA intake levels in the second (OR, 2.84) and third (OR, 2.97) quartiles.
“This study also hypothesizes that increasing the proportion of dietary ω-3 consumption levels while controlling overall daily PUFA intake may be protective against glaucoma,” the authors write.
“However, longitudinal studies or randomized clinical trials are needed to assess these hypotheses.”
Journal reference: JAMA Ophthalmology