COVID-19: New Research Highlights N Antibody Levels Appear to Be Lower in Fully Vaccinated Individuals Who Acquire Infection

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A document by the British health authorities reveals that recent observations from UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) surveillance data indicates that N antibody levels appear to be lower in individuals who acquire infection following 2 doses of vaccination.
 
That single line that has lots of implications is found in the second last line of the third paragraph on page 23 of the document. 

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1027511/Vaccine-surveillance-report-week-42.pdf

What until now has always been affirmed by the international media has created an “illusion” that has distorted the real situation….they have always acclaimed … that those vaccinated have a better immune response than that of natural immunity despite more than 91 published studies showing otherwise! (Please refer to list at the end of the article), so a question arises, are we on the right track to simply have antibodies that are only generated by the vaccines that target the S-proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 only.

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“Seropositivity estimates for S antibody in blood donors are likely to be higher than would be expected in the general population and this probably reflects the fact that donors are more likely to be vaccinated. Seropositivity estimates for N antibody will underestimate the proportion of the population previously infected due to

  • (i) blood donors are potentially less likely to be exposed to natural infection than age matched individuals in the general population
  • (ii) waning of the N antibody response over time and
  • (iii) recent observations from UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) surveillance data that N antibody levels appear to be lower in individuals who acquire infection following 2 doses of vaccination.”

…and

Summary of impact on hospitalisations, infections and mortality

UKHSA previously reported on the number of hospitalisations directly averted by vaccination. In total, around 261,500 hospitalisations have been prevented in those aged 45 years and over up to 19 September 2021.

UKHSA and University of Cambridge MRC Biostatistics Unit previously reported on the direct and indirect impact of the vaccination programme on infections and mortality.

Estimates suggest that 127,500 deaths and 24,144,000 infections have been prevented as a result of the COVID- 19 vaccination programme, up to 24 September.

Neither of these models will be updated going forward. This is due to these models being unable to account for the interventions that would have been implemented in the absence of vaccination.

Consequently, over time the state of the actual pandemic and the no-vaccination pandemic scenario have become increasingly less comparable. For further context surrounding this figure and for previous estimates, please see previous vaccine surveillance reports.

————
 
Many of the new variants are also having mutations taking place on the N proteins and some of these mutations have been influencing immune evasiveness and even transmissibility directly or indirectly.
 
To date we know that these vaccines do not stop infection or transmission of the virus but according to ‘experts’, they stop disease progression, prevent hospitalization and also prevents deaths.
 
However, in the most vaccinated countries like Singapore, United Kingdom and Israel, we are also seeing fully vaccinated people who had their vaccines not more than even six months, now being hospitalized, being admitted to ICUs due to disease severity and some also dying.
 
There are reports now that the effectiveness of the vaccines wanes after six months and that booster doses are being required.
 
What this statement in the British health document could be implying is that they are now finding the vaccine interferes with the human body’s innate ability after infection to produce antibodies against not just the spike protein but other pieces of the virus.

Specifically, vaccinated people don’t seem to be producing antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein, the shell of the virus, which are a crucial part of the response in unvaccinated people. 

Below is a list of the 91 studies talking about natural immunity.
 
1)Necessity of COVID-19 vaccination in previously infected individuals, Shrestha, 2021
2) SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls, Le Bert, 2020
3) Comparing SARS-CoV-2 natural immunity to vaccine-induced immunity: reinfections versus breakthrough infections,Gazit, 2021
4) Highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, Le Bert, 2021
5) Large-scale study of antibody titer decay following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine or SARS-CoV-2 infection, Israel, 2021
6) SARS-CoV-2 re-infection risk in Austria, Pilz, 2021
7) mRNA vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells recognize B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status, Neidleman, 2021
8) Good news: Mild COVID-19 induces lasting antibody protection, Bhandari, 2021
9) Robust neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection persist for months, Wajnberg, 2021
10) Evolution of Antibody Immunity to SARS-CoV-2, Gaebler, 2020
11) Persistence of neutralizing antibodies a year after SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, Haveri, 2021
12) Quantifying the risk of SARS‐CoV‐2 reinfection over time, Murchu, 2021
13) Natural immunity to covid is powerful. Policymakers seem afraid to say so, Makary, 2021
14) SARS-CoV-2 elicits robust adaptive immune responses regardless of disease severity, Nielsen, 2021
15) Protection of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is similar to that of BNT162b2 vaccine protection: A three-month nationwide experience from Israel, Goldberg, 2021
16) Incidence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 infection among previously infected or vaccinated employees, Kojima, 2021
17) Having SARS-CoV-2 once confers much greater immunity than a vaccine—but vaccination remains vital, Wadman, 2021
18) One-year sustained cellular and humoral immunities of COVID-19 convalescents, Zhang, 2021
19) Functional SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Memory Persists after Mild COVID-19, Rodda, 2021
20) Discrete Immune Response Signature to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination Versus Infection, Ivanova, 2021
21) SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans, Turner, 2021
22) SARS-CoV-2 infection rates of antibody-positive compared with antibody-negative health-care workers in England: a large, multicentre, prospective cohort study (SIREN), Jane Hall, 2021
23) Pandemic peak SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion rates in London frontline health-care workers, Houlihan, 2020
24) Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are associated with protection against reinfection, Lumley, 2021
25) Longitudinal analysis shows durable and broad immune memory after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persisting antibody responses and memory B and T cells, Cohen, 2021
26) Single cell profiling of T and B cell repertoires following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine, Sureshchandra, 2021
27) SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positivity protects against reinfection for at least seven months with 95% efficacy, Abu-Raddad, 2021
28) Orthogonal SARS-CoV-2 Serological Assays Enable Surveillance of Low-Prevalence Communities and Reveal Durable Humoral Immunity, Ripperger, 2020
29) Anti-spike antibody response to natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population, Wei, 2021
30) Antibody Status and Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers, Lumley, 2021
31) Researchers find long-lived immunity to 1918 pandemic virus, CIDRAP, 2008
and the actual 2008 NATURE journal publication by Yu
32) Live virus neutralisation testing in convalescent patients and subjects vaccinated against 19A, 20B, 20I/501Y.V1 and 20H/501Y.V2 isolates of SARS-CoV-2, Gonzalez, 2021
33) Differential effects of the second SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose on T cell immunity in naïve and COVID-19 recovered individuals, Camara, 2021
34) Op-Ed: Quit Ignoring Natural COVID Immunity, Klausner, 2021
35) Association of SARS-CoV-2 Seropositive Antibody Test With Risk of Future Infection, Harvey, 2021
36) SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and subsequent infection risk in healthy young adults: a prospective cohort study, Letizia, 2021
37) Associations of Vaccination and of Prior Infection With Positive PCR Test Results for SARS-CoV-2 in Airline Passengers Arriving in Qatar, Bertollini, 2021
38) Natural immunity against COVID-19 significantly reduces the risk of reinfection: findings from a cohort of sero-survey participants, Mishra, 2021
39) Lasting immunity found after recovery from COVID-19, NIH, 2021
40) SARS-CoV-2 Natural Antibody Response Persists for at Least 12 Months in a Nationwide Study From the Faroe Islands, Petersen, 2021
41) SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory is sustained in COVID-19 convalescent patients for 10 months with successful development of stem cell-like memory T cells, Jung, 2021
42) Immune Memory in Mild COVID-19 Patients and Unexposed Donors Reveals Persistent T Cell Responses After SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Ansari, 2021
43) COVID-19 natural immunity, WHO, 2021
44) Antibody Evolution after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination, Cho, 2021
45) Humoral Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 in IcelandGudbjartsson, 2020
46)  Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection, Dan, 2021
47) The prevalence of adaptive immunity to COVID-19 and reinfection after recovery – a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 011 447 individuals, Chivese, 2021
48) Reinfection Rates among Patients who Previously Tested Positive for COVID-19: a Retrospective Cohort Study, Sheehan, 2021
49) Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection 1 Year After Primary Infection in a Population in Lombardy, Italy, Vitale, 2020
50) Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with protection against symptomatic reinfection, Hanrath, 2021
51) mRNA vaccine-induced T cells respond identically to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status, Neidleman, 2021
52) Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals, Grifoni, 2020
53) NIH Director’s Blog: Immune T Cells May Offer Lasting Protection Against COVID-19, Collins, 2021
54) Ultrapotent antibodies against diverse and highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, Wang, 2021
55) Why COVID-19 Vaccines Should Not Be Required for All Americans, Makary, 2021
56) Protracted yet coordinated differentiation of long-lived SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells during COVID-19 convalescence, Ma, 2021
57) Decrease in Measles Virus-Specific CD4 T Cell Memory in Vaccinated Subjects, Naniche, 2004
58) Remembrance of Things Past: Long-Term B Cell Memory After Infection and Vaccination, Palm, 2019
59) SARS-CoV-2 specific memory B-cells from individuals with diverse disease severities recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, Lyski, 2021
60) Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 generates T-cell memory in the absence of a detectable viral infection, Wang, 2021
61) CD8+ T-Cell Responses in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals Target Conserved Epitopes From Multiple Prominent SARS-CoV-2 Circulating Variants, Redd, 2021and Lee, 2021
62) Exposure to common cold coronaviruses can teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2,La Jolla, Crotty and Sette, 2020
63) Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans, Mateus, 2020
64) Longitudinal observation of antibody responses for 14 months after SARS-CoV-2 infectionDehgani-Mobaraki, 2021
65) Humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell responses in recovered patients with COVID-19, Juno, 2020
66) Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals, Robbiani, 2020
67) Rapid generation of durable B cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins in COVID-19 and convalescence, Hartley, 2020 
68) Had COVID? You’ll probably make antibodies for a lifetime, Callaway, 2021
69) A majority of uninfected adults show preexisting antibody reactivity against SARS-CoV-2, Majdoubi, 2021
70) SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in healthy donors and patients with COVID-19, Braun, 2020
71) Naturally enhanced neutralizing breadth against SARS-CoV-2 one year after infection, Wang, 2021
72) One Year after Mild COVID-19: The Majority of Patients Maintain Specific Immunity, But One in Four Still Suffer from Long-Term Symptoms, Rank, 2021
73) IDSA, 2021
74) Assessment of protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 among 4 million PCR-tested individuals in Denmark in 2020: a population-level observational study, Holm Hansen, 2021
75) Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in Acute COVID-19 and Associations with Age and Disease Severity, Moderbacher, 2020 
76) Detection of SARS-CoV-2-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immunity in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals, Ni, 2020
77) Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity is maintained at 6 months following primary infection, Zuo, 2020
78) Negligible impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivity in COVID-19 exposed donors and vaccinees, Tarke, 2021
79) A 1 to 1000 SARS-CoV-2 reinfection proportion in members of a large healthcare provider in Israel: a preliminary report, Perez, 2021
80) Persistence and decay of human antibody responses to the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in COVID-19 patients, Iyer, 2020
81) A population-based analysis of the longevity of SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity in the United States, Alfego, 2021
82) What are the roles of antibodies versus a durable, high- quality T-cell response in protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2? Hellerstein, 2020
83) Broad and strong memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells induced by SARS-CoV-2 in UK convalescent COVID-19 patients, Peng, 2020
84) Robust T Cell Immunity in Convalescent Individuals with Asymptomatic or Mild COVID-19, Sekine, 2020
85) Potent SARS-CoV-2-Specific T Cell Immunity and Low Anaphylatoxin Levels Correlate With Mild Disease Progression in COVID-19 Patients, Lafron, 2021
86) SARS-CoV-2 T-cell epitopes define heterologous and COVID-19 induced T-cell recognition, Nelde, 2020
87) Karl Friston: up to 80% not even susceptible to Covid-19, Sayers, 2020
88) CD8+ T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope cross-react with selective seasonal coronaviruses, Lineburg, 2021
89) SARS-CoV-2 genome-wide mapping of CD8 T cell recognition reveals strong immunodominance and substantial CD8 T cell activation in COVID-19 patients, Saini, 2020
90) Equivalency of Protection from Natural Immunity in COVID-19 Recovered Versus Fully Vaccinated Persons: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis, Shenai, 2021
91) ChAdOx1nCoV-19 effectiveness during an unprecedented surge in SARS CoV-2 infections, Satwik, 2021

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