Enhancing Fighter Aircraft Survivability: The Role of RAFAEL’s X-GUARD™ Towed Decoy


In today’s increasingly complex battlefields, fighter aircraft crews require effective protection against sophisticated surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles. Enhancing aircraft detection capabilities and the need for improved active Electronic Warfare (EW) defense are paramount. RAFAEL Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. has introduced the X-GUARD™ reusable towed decoy, designed to address this critical operational necessity. Integrated with the fighter aircraft’s EW suite, the towed decoy offers high-value active protection that can defeat the most advanced radars, significantly increasing aircraft survivability.

The Evolution of Electronic Warfare and Decoys

Electronic Warfare (EW) has evolved significantly over the decades, driven by the continuous advancements in radar and missile technologies. Early EW systems focused on jamming and deception, utilizing noise jammers and chaff. However, modern threats necessitate more sophisticated solutions capable of countering advanced radar systems and missile seekers.

Historical Context

The development of EW systems dates back to World War II, with the use of radar jammers and chaff to disrupt enemy radar. The Vietnam War saw the introduction of more advanced jamming techniques and the use of towed decoys to protect high-value aircraft. The evolution continued through the Cold War, with the introduction of digital techniques and more sophisticated decoys capable of mimicking aircraft signatures.

Modern Threats

Today’s battlefields present a range of threats from advanced Integrated Air Defense Systems (IADS), which include sophisticated radar systems capable of tracking and engaging multiple targets over long ranges. These threats have been demonstrated in recent conflicts where air forces have faced significant challenges in maintaining air superiority.

Lessons from Recent Conflicts

RAFAEL’s development of the X-GUARD™ and its latest addition, the X-Guard RT, has been influenced by lessons learned from recent conflicts. Air forces have encountered advanced IADS, a lack of intelligence on emerging threats, and extended periods of contested airspace. The need for effective countermeasures that can operate independently of the platform’s existing ECM systems became apparent.

RAFAEL’s X-GUARD™ – source :https://www.rafael.co.il/system/x-guard/

X-GUARD™ Towed Decoy: Enhancing Aircraft Survivability

RAFAEL’s X-GUARD™ towed decoy is a cutting-edge solution designed to provide comprehensive protection for fighter aircraft. The system is engineered to counter radar-guided air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles, ensuring aircraft survivability in hostile environments.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Increased Aircraft Survivability: The X-GUARD™ significantly enhances the probability of mission success by providing active protection against advanced radar systems.
  • Minimal Impact on Maneuverability: The lightweight design and low drag of the X-GUARD™ ensure minimal limitations on the aircraft’s maneuverability while deployed.
  • Full Sphere Defense Coverage: The system offers comprehensive defense coverage, protecting the aircraft from threats originating from any direction.
  • Shields against AD Systems : Towed behind the fighter aircraft, the lightweight X-GUARD defeats advanced tracking radars, including Monopulse and Lobe-On-Receive-Only (LORO) radar types. X-GUARD can be deployed – either when the aircraft approaches a threatened area or upon detection of an imminent threat – to counter radar-guided air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles during operational missions.
  • Advanced and Adaptable : The X-GUARD system is certified for use within the fighter aircraft operational flight envelope, at low and high altitude, and subsonic to supersonic velocity. The system is integrated with the aircraft and its onboard EW system, using standard protocols. The X-GUARD pod and decoy are carried on air-to-air or air-to-ground weapon stations.
  • High-Value Active Protection : X-GUARD includes high Effective Radiated Power (ERP) and a solid-state active antenna array with full sphere coverage. Integrated with the fighter aircraft’s EW suite, the towed decoy provides high-value active protection that defeats the most sophisticated radars, dramatically increasing aircraft survivability. The system is fully operational and proven on fighter aircraft.
  • Fast Deployment and Retractability: The X-GUARD™ can be quickly deployed and retracted using an advanced reel-out/reel-in mechanism, maintaining continuity throughout the flight.
  • Reusable Design: The decoy is reusable, offering a cost-effective solution with a low Life Cycle Cost (LCC).
  • Simple Operation: The system is designed for simple operation by the pilot, ensuring ease of use during critical missions.
  • High Reliability and Safety: The X-GUARD™ is certified for safe operation during all phases of flight, from low to high altitudes and subsonic to supersonic velocities.

Image : X-GUARD™ – https://www.rafael.co.il/system/x-guard/

Technical Specifications

  • Weight: The combined weight of the pod and decoy is 65 kg.
  • Flight Envelope: The system is operational at altitudes up to 50,000 feet and velocities up to 1.6 Mach, with acceleration limits up to 7g.
  • Communications: The system maintains both electrical and fiber-optic continuity, ensuring reliable communication with the aircraft’s EW system.

Operational Integration

The X-GUARD™ is integrated with the aircraft and its onboard EW system using standard protocols. The pod and decoy are carried on air-to-air or air-to-ground weapon stations, ensuring seamless integration with existing aircraft systems.

The Next Generation: X-Guard RT

Building on the success of the X-GUARD™, RAFAEL has developed the X-Guard RT, the latest addition to its family of reusable towed EW decoys. The X-Guard RT is designed to operate independently of the platform’s ECM system, offering enhanced flexibility and protection for a wide range of aerial platforms, including fighter aircraft, cargo planes, early warning and intelligence platforms, and special mission aircraft.

Advanced Capabilities

The X-Guard RT features several advancements over previous generations, including:

  • Independent Operation: Unlike traditional decoys that rely on the aircraft’s EW systems for signal processing, the X-Guard RT operates independently using an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA). This allows the decoy to receive and transmit signals, processing them on board without requiring support from the aircraft’s ECM.
  • High Transmission Power: The X-Guard RT offers extremely high transmission power and wide spatial coverage, providing exceptional EW protection capabilities.
  • Advanced Digital Techniques: The decoy employs advanced Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) techniques to match transmitted signals with hostile radar profiles, ensuring effective jamming against a broad spectrum of radar-guided threats.
  • Mission Customization: The system is fully programmable, enabling customization for specific missions and adaptation to new threats as they emerge.
  • Extended Engagement Times: Enhanced with longer engagement times, the X-Guard RT provides wider protection coverage during missions.

Operational Flexibility

The X-Guard RT supports a broad flight envelope, maintaining operational flexibility without degrading in-flight performance. This ensures that aircraft can carry out their missions with minimal limitations, even in contested environments.


One of the key advantages of the X-Guard RT is its reusability, making it a cost-effective solution for modern air forces. The ability to reel in the decoy after mission completion and redeploy it for subsequent missions reduces the overall cost of operation and maintenance.

Certification and Reliability

The X-Guard RT is certified for use within the fighter aircraft operational flight envelope, ensuring reliability and safety during all flight phases. The system has been rigorously tested and proven on various fighter aircraft platforms, demonstrating its effectiveness and dependability.

Future Directions and Strategic Implications

As air defense systems continue to evolve, the need for advanced EW solutions like the X-Guard RT will become increasingly critical. The development of sophisticated decoys capable of independent operation and advanced jamming techniques represents a significant step forward in ensuring aircraft survivability in modern combat scenarios.

Continuous Innovation

RAFAEL’s commitment to continuous innovation is evident in the development of the X-Guard family. By leveraging lessons learned from recent conflicts and incorporating cutting-edge technologies, RAFAEL is positioned to address emerging threats and provide air forces with the tools they need to maintain air superiority.

Collaborative Efforts

The success of EW systems like the X-Guard RT also highlights the importance of collaborative efforts between defense companies and military forces. Close cooperation and feedback from operational experiences are essential for refining and enhancing these systems to meet the evolving needs of modern warfare.

In conclusion, RAFAEL’s X-GUARD™ and the latest X-Guard RT represent significant advancements in electronic warfare and aircraft protection. These systems offer comprehensive protection against advanced radar-guided threats, enhancing aircraft survivability and mission success rates. As the battlefield continues to evolve, the development and deployment of sophisticated EW solutions like the X-Guard family will play a crucial role in maintaining air superiority and ensuring the safety of fighter aircraft crews.

By continuously innovating and adapting to emerging threats, RAFAEL is setting a new standard in electronic warfare and aircraft defense, providing air forces with the capabilities they need to succeed in today’s complex combat environments.

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